This report was produced by Pew Research Center as part of the Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures project, which analyzes religious change and its impact on societies around the world. Funding for the Global Religious Futures project comes from The Pew Charitable Trusts and the John Templeton Foundation (grant 61640).

This report is a collaborative effort by Pew Research Center staff. Find related reports online at

This report benefitted from the feedback of six eminent scholars, who have asked to remain anonymous. While the analysis for this report was guided by our consultations with these advisers, the Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data.