Hmong population in the U.S., 2000-2019

Year Population
2000 186,000
2010 260,000
2015 299,000
2019 327,000

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English proficiency of Hmong population in the U.S., 2019

Category English proficient
All 68%
U.S. born 83%
Foreign born 43%
Adults 63%
All Asians 72%

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Length of time in the U.S. for Hmong immigrants, 2000-2019

Year 0 to 10 years More than 10 years
2000 39% 61%
2010 20% 80%
2015 18% 82%
2019 8% 92%

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Year 0 to 10 years More than 10 years
2000 44% 56%
2010 36% 64%
2015 34% 66%
2019 34% 66%

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Educational attainment of Hmong population in the U.S., 2019

Category High school or less Some college Bachelor's degree Postgrad degree
All 46% 31% 17% 6%
U.S. born 31% 39% 22% 8%
Foreign born 57% 24% 14% 5%
All Asians 27% 19% 30% 24%
All Americans 39% 29% 20% 13%

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U.S. Hmong population living in poverty, 2019

Group All Americans All Asians All Hmong
All 13% 10% 17%
U.S. born 13% 9% 17%
Foreign born 14% 11% 15%

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Top 10 U.S. metropolitan areas by Hmong population, 2019

Metro area Hmong population
Minneapolis-St. Paul 81,000
Fresno, CA 35,000
Sacramento, CA 27,000
Milwaukee 11,000
Hickory, NC 8,000
Stockton, CA 7,000
Detroit 7,000
Merced, CA 6,000
Wausau, WI 6,000
Sheboygan, WI 5,000

Pew Research Center

Demographic characteristics of U.S. Hmong population, 2019

% (unless otherwise noted)

Among Hmong in the U.S.
All Asians
in the U.S.
All U.S. born Foreign born
MEDIAN AGE (in years) 34 25 18 41
AGE
Younger than 5 7 10 14 <0.5
5-17 17 24 35 4
18-29 18 27 32 15
30-39 17 19 16 25
40-49 14 9 1 24
50-64 16 8 1 24
65+ 11 3 1 9
NATIVITY
U.S. born 43 66
Foreign born 57 34
YEARS IN U.S. (among foreign born)
0-5 years 21 4
6-10 years 13 5
11-15 years 11 15
16-20 years 12 6
21+ years 44 71
CITIZENSHIP (among foreign born)
U.S. citizen 59 81
Not a U.S. citizen 41 19
MARITAL STATUS (18 and older)
Married 59 44 28 59
Divorced/Separated/Widowed 11 9 3 16
Never married 30 47 68 25
FERTILITY (among women ages 15 to 44)
Women who have given birth in the past 12 months 6 10 9 13
HOUSEHOLD TYPE, BY PERSONS
Married-couple household 71 62 61 65
Other family household 13 20 19 22
Non-family household 15 18 21 13
IN A MULTIGENERATIONAL HOUSEHOLD
Multigenerational household 27 36 31 45

Note: Family households are those with a household head and one or more persons living in the household who are related to the household head by birth, marriage or adoption. Households with a household head and an unmarried partner are only considered family households if there are other persons in the household who are related to the household head by birth, marriage or adoption. Multigenerational households are households with two or more adult generations or one that includes grandparents and grandchildren. Figures may not sum to 100% due to rounding. Due to data limitations, figures for Hmong based on single-race population only, regardless of Hispanic origin. Figures for all Asians based on mixed-race and mixed-group populations, regardless of Hispanic origin. See methodology for more detail.
Source: Pew Research Center analysis of 2017-2019 American Community Survey (IPUMS).

Pew Research Center

Economic characteristics of U.S. Hmong population, 2019

% (unless otherwise noted)

Among Hmong in the U.S.
All Asians
in the U.S.
All U.S. born Foreign born
MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME $85,800 $68,000 $63,530 $70,000
MEDIAN ANNUAL PERSONAL EARNINGS (ages 16 and older with positive earnings)
All $40,000 $30,000 $27,000 $34,000
Full-time, year-round workers $60,000 $38,000 $36,000 $39,000
EMPLOYMENT STATUS (civilians ages 16 and older)
Employed 64 67 69 64
Not employed 3 4 5 3
Not in labor force 34 29 26 33
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (civilians ages 16 and older in the labor force) 4 6 7 4
LIVING IN POVERTY
All ages 10 17 17 15
Younger than 18 10 22 21 ***
18-64 10 14 13 15
65 and older 12 16 *** 14
HOMEOWNERSHIP (households)
Owner-occupied 59 52 40 61
Renter-occupied 41 48 60 39

The symbol *** indicates insufficient number of observations to provide a reliable estimate.
Note: The household population excludes persons living in institutions, college dormitories and other group quarters. Households are classified by the race or detailed Asian group of the head. “Full-time, year-round workers” are defined as people ages 16 and older who usually worked at least 35 hours per week and at least 48 weeks in the past year. The share of the population ages 16 and older who are not employed differs from the unemployment rate because the share not employed is based on the total population, while the unemployment rate is based on those who are in the labor force (i.e. working or looking for work). Poverty status is determined for individuals in housing units and non-institutional group quarters. It is unavailable for children younger than 15 who are not related to the householder, people living in institutional group quarters and people living in college dormitories or military barracks. Due to the way in which the IPUMS assigns poverty values, these data will differ from those provided by the U.S. Census Bureau. Figures may not sum to 100% due to rounding. Due to data limitations, figures for Hmong based on single-race population only, regardless of Hispanic origin. Figures for all Asians based on mixed-race and mixed-group populations, regardless of Hispanic origin. See methodology for more detail.
Source: Pew Research Center analysis of 2017-2019 American Community Survey (IPUMS).

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