This report was made possible by The Pew Charitable Trusts. Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals:

Research team

Hannah Hartig, Senior Researcher
Andrew Daniller, Research Associate
Scott Keeter, Senior Survey Advisor
Ted Van Green, Research Analyst
Carroll Doherty, Director, Political Research
Jocelyn Kiley, Associate Director, Political Research
Andrew Mercer, Senior Research Methodologist
Arnold Lau, Research Methodologist
Amina Dunn, Research Analyst
Andy Cerda, Research Assistant

Communications and editorial

Rachel Drian, Associate Director, Communications
Nida Asheer, Senior Communications Manager
Talia Price, Communications Associate
Rebecca Leppert, Copy Editor

Graphic design and web publishing

Peter Bell, Design Director
Alissa Scheller, Senior Information Graphics Designer
Reem Nadeem, Digital Producer


Courtney Kennedy, Vice President, Methods and Innovation
Dorene Asare-Marfo, Panel Manager

Several others provided helpful comments and input on this study, including Michael Dimock, Mark Hugo Lopez and Gregory Smith.