This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Colleen McClain, Research Associate          
Michelle Faverio, Research Analyst
Monica Anderson, Director, Internet and Technology Research   
Eugenie Park, Former Research Intern

Research team

Jeffrey Gottfried, Associate Director, Research
Emily A. Vogels, Research Associate
Risa Gelles-Watnick, Research Analyst
Olivia Sidoti, Research Assistant
Lee Rainie, Former Director, Internet and Technology Research

Editorial and graphic design

Aaron Smith, Director, Data Labs
Kaitlyn Radde, Associate Information Graphics Designer
David Kent, Senior Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Haley Nolan, Communications Manager
Kelsey Beveridge, Communications Associate
Sara Atske, Digital Producer
Kelly Browning, Manager, User Experience
Molly Rohal, Associate Director, Communications

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of Pew Research Center’s methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Dorene Asare-Marfo, Ashley Amaya, Arnold Lau and Dana Popky. This project also benefited from feedback by the following Pew Research Center staff: Gonzalo Rivero, Sono Shah and Samuel Bestvater.