This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Samuel Bestvater, Computational Social Scientist
Risa Gelles-Watnick, Research Assistant
Meltem Odabaş, Computational Social Scientist
Monica Anderson, Director, Internet and Technology Research
Aaron Smith, Director, Data Labs

Research team        

Gonzalo Rivero, Associate Director, Data Labs              
Galen Stocking, Senior Computational Social Scientist
Emily A. Vogels, Research Associate
Athena Chapekis, Data Science Analyst
Sono Shah, Computational Social Scientist

Editorial and graphic design

Alissa Scheller, Information Graphics Designer
Anna Jackson, Editorial Assistant

Communications and web publishing

Haley Nolan, Communications Manager
Sara Atske, Associate Digital Producer

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of Pew Research Center’s methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Dorene Asare-Marfo, Ashley Amaya, Arnold Lau and Dana Popky. This project also benefited from feedback by the following Pew Research Center staff: Lee Rainie, Kiana Cox, Khadijah Edwards, Juliana Horowitz, Jocelyn Kiley and Carroll Doherty.