This report was written by Kiana Cox, research associate, and Khadijah Edwards, research associate.

Editorial guidance was provided by Mark Hugo Lopez, director, race and ethnicity research.

Methodological guidance was provided by Courtney Kennedy, vice president, methods and innovation, and Ashley Amaya, senior survey research methodologist. Guidance on the communications strategy and outreach was provided by Tanya Arditi, communications manager.

The report was number checked by Mohamad Moslimani, research assistant; Carolyne Im, research assistant; and Anusha Natarajan, research intern. Shannon Greenwood, digital producer, produced the report. David Kent, senior copy editor, copy edited the report. Charts were designed by Cox, Edwards, Im and Natarajan with guidance from Peter Bell, design director.

Pew Research Center is grateful to a panel of expert advisers who gave advice on all stages of the research process: Michael C. Dawson, John D. MacArthur Professor of Political Science and the College at the University of Chicago; Leah Wright Rigueur, SNF Agora Institute Associate Professor of History at Johns Hopkins University; C. Riley Snorton, Professor of English Language and Literature and the Center for Gender and Sexuality Studies at the University of Chicago; Mosi Adesina Ifatunji, Assistant Professor of Afro-American Studies and Sociology at the University of Wisconsin at Madison; and Charlene A. Carruthers, Founding National Director of Black Youth Project 100. 

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