This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researcher

Paul Hitlin, Senior Researcher

Research team

Lee Rainie, Director, Internet, Science, and Technology Research
Nicholas Hatley, Research Assistant
Aaron Smith, Associate Director, Internet, Science, and Technology Research
Patrick van Kessel, Data Science Associate
Brian Broderick, DevOps Engineer
Maeve Duggan, Research Associate
Andrew Perrin, Research Assistant

Editorial and graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
Shannon Greenwood, Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Dana Page, Senior Communications Manager
Shannon Greenwood, Assistant Digital Producer
Olivia O’Hea, Communications Assistant