This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Kim Parker, Director of Social Trends Research
Juliana Menasce Horowitz, Associate Director, Research
Anna Brown, Research Associate
Janakee Chavda, Assistant Digital Producer
Ruth Igielnik, Former Senior Researcher
Kiley Hurst, Research Assistant
Dana Braga, Research Assistant
J. Baxter Oliphant, Senior Researcher
Shannon Greenwood, Digital Producer
Sara Atske, Associate Digital Producer
Rebecca Leppert, Editorial Assistant
Michael Keegan, Senior Information Graphics Designer
Tanya Arditi, Communications Manager
Julia O’Hanlon, Communications Associate
Mimi Cottingham, Communications Associate

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of the Pew Research Center methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Ashley Amaya, Dorene Asare-Marfo, Dana Popky, Nick Hatley and Arnold Lau.