This report was made possible by The Pew Charitable Trusts, which received support from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, the Ford Foundation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Open Society Foundations. Support for the research is part of Knight Foundation’s Trust, Media and Democracy initiative, which aims to strengthen the role of strong, trusted journalism as essential to a healthy democracy.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Amy Mitchell, Director, Journalism Research
Jeffrey Gottfried, Senior Researcher
Michael Barthel, Research Associate
Nami Sumida, Research Analyst

Research team

Elizabeth Grieco, Senior Writer/Editor
Galen Stocking, Computational Social Scientist
Elisa Shearer, Research Analyst
Sophia Fedeli, Research Assistant
Mason Walker, Research Assistant
Claudia Deane, Vice President, Research
Courtney Kennedy, Director, Survey Research
Scott Keeter, Senior Survey Advisor
Kim Parker, Director, Social Trends Research
Juliana Horowitz, Associate Director, Research
Carroll Doherty, Director, Political Research
Jocelyn Kiley, Associate Director, Research
Alec Tyson, Senior Researcher
Lee Rainie, Director, Internet and Technology Research
Besheer Mohamed, Senior Researcher
Andrew Mercer, Senior Research Methodologist

Editorial and graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
Travis Mitchell, Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Rachel Weisel, Communications Manager
Hannah Klein, Computational Social Scientist
Sara Atske, Assistant Digital Producer
Ben Wormald, Web Developer

Pew Research Center also received helpful advice and feedback for this report from a panel of expert advisers: Miriam Metzger is a professor in the Department of Communication at the University of California, Santa Barbara; Daron Shaw is a professor in the Department of Government at the University of Texas at Austin; David M. Shribman is the executive editor of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette; Natalie Jomini Stroud is an associate professor of Communication Studies and Journalism and director of the Center for Media Engagement in the Moody College of Communication at the University of Texas at Austin; and Magdalena Wojcieszak is an associate professor in the Department of Communication at the University of California, Davis.

While the analysis was guided by our consultations with these advisers, Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data.