This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Olivia Sidoti, Research Assistant      
Emily A. Vogels, Research Associate

Research team        

Monica Anderson, Director, Internet and Technology Research
Colleen McClain, Research Associate
Michelle Faverio, Research Analyst
Risa Gelles-Watnick, Research Analyst
Eugenie Park, Research Intern
Lee Rainie, Former Director, Internet and Technology Research 

Editorial and graphic design

John Gramlich, Associate Director, Short Reads
Kaitlyn Radde, Associate Information Graphics Designer
Rebecca Leppert, Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Kelsey Beveridge, Communications Associate
Haley Nolan, Communications Manager
Sara Atske, Digital Producer
Abby Stafford, Digital Intern

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of Pew Research Center’s methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Dorene Asare-Marfo, Ashley Amaya, Arnold Lau and Dana Popky. This project also benefited from feedback by the following Pew Research Center staff: Aaron Smith, Gonzalo Rivero, Sono Shah and Samuel Bestvater.