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There were a record 44.8 million immigrants living in the U.S. in 2018, making up 13.7% of the nation’s population. This represents a more than fourfold increase since 1960, when 9.7 million immigrants lived in the U.S., accounting for 5.4% of the total U.S. population. Click the link below each summary table to download the data.
To find more context on the figures below, visit the blog post “Key findings about U.S. immigrants,” and for a downloadable version of the tables below, see the PDF and the Excel workbook. For facts on Latinos in the United States, see our profile on U.S. Hispanics.
For details on our regional grouping of countries, see our “Countries by regional classification” document (PDF).
Nativity of U.S. immigrants
|Foreign-born population total||44,760,622|
|Percent born in Mexico||25.0%|
|Percent who are citizens||50.7%|
Race of U.S. immigrants
|Percent who are white alone, not Hispanic||17.7%|
Language use among U.S. immigrants
|Percent speaking English at least very well
(ages 5 and older)
Age and gender of U.S. immigrants
|Median age of foreign-born population (in years)||45|
|Percent of foreign born who are female||51.8%|
Marital status and fertility of U.S. immigrants
|Percent who are married
(ages 18 and older)
|Percent who are women ages 15-44 giving birth in past year||7.5%|
Education of U.S. immigrants
Highest degree completed, ages 25 and older
|High school or less||49.2%|
|Two-year degree/Some college||18.8%|
|Bachelor’s degree or more||32.0%|
Work status and occupations of U.S. immigrants
Ages 16 and older
|Percent in labor force
(among civilian population)
Earnings and income of U.S. immigrants
Ages 16 and older
|Median annual personal earnings
(in 2018 dollars, among those with earnings)
|Median annual household income
(in 2018 dollars)
Poverty and health insurance among U.S. immigrants
|Percent living in poverty||14.6%|
Homeownership and households of U.S. immigrants
|Percent in family households||82.3%|
Region and top states of residence of U.S. immigrants
Source: Pew Research Center tabulations of 2018 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS).
“Statistical Portrait of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States, 2018”