Numbers, Facts and Trends Shaping Your World

Facts on U.S. immigrants, 2018

Characteristics of the U.S. foreign-born population: 1960-2018

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There were a record 44.8 million immigrants living in the U.S. in 2018, making up 13.7% of the nation’s population. This represents a more than fourfold increase since 1960, when 9.7 million immigrants lived in the U.S., accounting for 5.4% of the total U.S. population. Click the link below each summary table to download the data.

To find more context on the figures below, visit the blog post “Key findings about U.S. immigrants,” and for a downloadable version of the tables below, see the PDF and the Excel workbook. For facts on Latinos in the United States, see our profile on U.S. Hispanics.

For details on our regional grouping of countries, see our “Countries by regional classification” document.

Nativity of U.S. immigrants

Foreign-born population total9,729,1479,744,83314,079,46019,682,00431,133,48139,916,87544,760,622
Percent born in Mexico6.0%8.1%15.6%21.7%29.4%29.4%25.0%
Percent who are citizensN/A63.7%50.4%40.5%40.3%43.7%50.7%

Download Excel sheet with all population and nativity findings

Race of U.S. immigrants

Percent who are white alone, not HispanicN/AN/A49.3%31.2%22.0%18.7%17.7%

Download Excel sheet with all race findings

Language use among U.S. immigrants

Percent speaking English at least very well (ages 5 and older)N/AN/A57.2%53.0%49.0%48.4%53.2%

Download Excel sheet with all language findings

Age and gender of U.S. immigrants

Median age (in years)57503937374145
Percent who are female51.1%54.1%53.4%51.1%50.2%51.0%51.8%

Download Excel sheet with all age and gender findings

Marital status and fertility of U.S. immigrants

Percent who are married (ages 18 and older)68.4%67.0%64.1%61.9%62.8%60.0%61.2%
Percent who are women ages 15-44 giving birth in past yearN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A8.5%7.5%

Download Excel sheet with all marriage and fertility findings

Education of U.S. immigrants

Highest degree completed, ages 25 and older

High school or less88.9%82.4%70.1%60.9%57.4%54.2%49.2%
Two-year degree/some college6.0%8.7%14.1%18.8%18.5%18.8%18.8%
Bachelor’s degree or more5.1%9.0%15.8%20.3%24.1%27.1%32.0%

Download Excel sheet with all education findings

Work status and occupations of U.S. immigrants

Ages 16 and older

Percent in labor force (among civilian population)47.5%48.3%55.4%64.2%60.5%67.7%66.6%

Download Excel sheet with all work findings

Earnings and income of U.S. immigrants

Ages 16 and older

Median annual personal earnings
(in 2018 dollars, among those with earnings)
Median annual household income (in 2018 dollars)N/AN/A$42,473$52,893$57,561$52,829$59,000

Download Excel sheet with all income findings

Poverty among U.S. immigrants

Percent living in poverty19.1%14.6%15.2%17.8%17.7%18.6%14.6%

Download Excel sheet with all poverty findings

Homeownership and households of U.S. immigrants

Percent in family households88.0%86.5%85.9%87.4%87.9%87.0%82.3%

Download Excel sheet with all homeownership and household findings

Region and top states of residence of U.S. immigrants

New York23.5%21.5%17.0%14.4%12.4%10.8%10.0%
New Jersey6.4%6.5%5.4%4.9%4.7%4.6%4.6%

Download Excel sheet with all region findings

Source: Pew Research Center tabulations of 2018 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS).
“Statistical Portrait of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States, 2018”

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