July 18, 2018

EU unemployment rate falls to near pre-recession low

A factory worker on the production line at a coffee factory in Campo Maior, Portugal, in March 2016. Portugal’s unemployment rate fell 9.7 percentage points between the first quarters of 2013 and 2018. (Patricia de Melo Moreira/AFP/Getty Images)

The European Union’s unemployment rate has dropped to its lowest point in almost a decade, though joblessness still varies widely among the 28 countries that make up the bloc, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of data from Eurostat, Europe’s statistical agency.

EU-28 unemployment rate has nearly returned to pre-recession low

The EU unemployment rate was 7.1% in the first quarter of 2018, the most recent quarter for which data for all countries are available. That was nearly on par with the 6.8% rate recorded in the first quarter of 2008, before the European financial crisis began. Europe’s unemployment rate reached a recent high of 11% in the first and second quarters of 2013. The steady decline since then reflects steady economic improvement in many EU countries.

Europe’s overall unemployment rate fluctuated during the EU financial crisis, which spanned two recessions. Unemployment steadily increased as economic output fell during the first recession, which lasted from the second quarter of 2008 to the second quarter of 2009. Unemployment then continued to increase while output stayed flat through the second recession, which lasted from the fourth quarter of 2011 to the first quarter of 2013. Although output grew in the roughly two years between the recessions, unemployment still trended up during this period.

Explore our interactive on unemployment rates in the 28 countries that make up the European Union.

Unemployment rate in EU countries, 2000-2018

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Austria,
ages 15 to 74
Austria,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 4.2% 5.6%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 3.7% 5.1%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 3.8% 5.3%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 3.8% 6.1%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 3.7% 5.4%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 4.0% 6.3%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 4.1% 6.5%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 4.3% 6.6%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 4.5% 6.5%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 4.2% 6.6%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 4.4% 6.8%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 4.4% 6.8%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 4.5% 6.8%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 4.8% 7.5%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 4.8% 8.0%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 5.0% 8.5%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 5.6% 12.6%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 5.4% 9.2%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 5.5% 9.7%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 5.5% 10.4%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 5.4% 10.2%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 5.7% 11.7%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 5.7% 11.0%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 5.7% 11.1%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 5.7% 10.9%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 5.2% 9.1%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 5.0% 9.5%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 4.9% 9.0%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 5.0% 9.2%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 5.1% 10.2%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 5.0% 10.1%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 4.5% 8.3%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 4.2% 8.6%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 3.9% 7.5%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 4.0% 7.9%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 4.4% 10.1%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 4.8% 9.7%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 5.4% 11.2%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 5.7% 11.1%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 5.5% 10.9%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 5.0% 9.8%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 4.9% 9.0%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 4.8% 9.6%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 4.5% 8.4%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 4.9% 9.8%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 4.5% 9.2%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 4.2% 8.0%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 4.8% 9.3%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 4.5% 9.2%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 4.9% 9.6%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 5.2% 9.9%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 5.0% 9.1%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 5.3% 9.2%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 5.2% 9.4%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 5.4% 9.8%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 5.5% 10.2%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 5.6% 11.0%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 5.5% 10.2%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 5.6% 10.0%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 5.7% 10.1%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 5.5% 9.2%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 5.9% 10.6%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 5.6% 10.7%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 5.9% 11.6%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 6.0% 11.6%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 6.2% 11.2%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 6.2% 11.5%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 5.7% 10.6%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 5.8% 10.5%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 5.5% 9.7%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 5.4% 9.7%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 5.4% 9.8%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 5.0% 9.8%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15-74
European Union,
ages 15-24
Belgium,
ages 15-74
Belgium,
ages 15-24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 7.1% 16.3%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 6.8% 15.9%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 6.9% 18.2%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 6.6% 15.8%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 6.1% 14.8%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 6.5% 16.8%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 6.3% 16.0%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 7.4% 19.4%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 7.3% 18.6%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 7.3% 17.2%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 7.5% 17.0%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 8.0% 18.3%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 8.1% 21.5%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 8.1% 20.7%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 8.1% 22.2%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 8.4% 22.5%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 8.6% 20.2%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 7.7% 19.3%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 8.9% 22.7%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 8.3% 22.2%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 8.5% 21.1%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 8.5% 21.8%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 8.5% 21.2%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 8.4% 22.0%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 8.6% 20.5%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 8.7% 20.7%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 7.9% 20.7%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 7.9% 19.9%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 7.8% 19.1%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 8.0% 21.1%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 7.1% 18.4%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 7.1% 17.3%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 6.9% 16.8%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 6.6% 15.8%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 7.5% 20.7%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 6.8% 17.8%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 7.8% 21.1%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 7.8% 21.7%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 8.0% 22.0%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 8.1% 23.1%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 8.6% 24.8%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 8.4% 22.7%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 8.4% 21.2%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 7.8% 20.9%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 7.1% 18.8%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 6.9% 18.0%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 7.5% 21.6%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 7.0% 16.3%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 7.1% 18.9%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 7.3% 17.7%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 7.5% 20.4%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 8.2% 21.7%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 8.4% 23.3%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 8.4% 24.1%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 8.5% 23.4%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 8.5% 24.2%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 8.6% 26.3%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 8.6% 25.0%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 8.5% 20.2%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 8.5% 21.8%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 8.7% 20.5%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 8.7% 21.7%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 8.0% 21.1%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 8.7% 25.1%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 8.2% 19.9%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 8.2% 20.6%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 7.7% 20.6%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 7.2% 19.3%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 7.7% 21.6%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 7.3% 21.5%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 7.1% 18.1%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 6.4% 16.3%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 6.1% 17.0%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Bulgaria,
ages 15 to 74
Bulgaria,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 14.7% 31.1%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 16.0% 33.2%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 17.2% 34.7%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 17.9% 36.2%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 18.8% 38.0%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 20.1% 38.5%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 19.9% 38.3%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 19.8% 37.7%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 19.2% 38.0%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 18.5% 35.2%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 18.3% 34.6%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 16.9% 32.5%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 15.0% 28.8%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 14.1% 27.4%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 13.3% 25.9%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 12.7% 25.0%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 12.8% 24.6%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 12.3% 24.4%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 11.5% 23.9%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 11.7% 23.8%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 10.9% 22.2%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 10.2% 21.9%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 9.7% 20.1%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 9.8% 20.1%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 9.3% 19.6%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 9.1% 19.4%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 9.2% 18.0%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 8.4% 16.3%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 7.6% 14.6%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 7.0% 13.0%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 6.9% 15.3%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 6.2% 13.7%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 6.1% 12.8%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 5.8% 12.5%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 5.4% 10.7%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 5.2% 11.6%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 5.9% 12.3%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 6.4% 14.1%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 7.2% 16.3%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 8.0% 17.6%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 9.4% 19.8%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 10.0% 21.0%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 10.5% 22.8%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 11.3% 24.3%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 11.2% 24.8%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 11.2% 24.9%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 11.2% 24.4%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 11.5% 26.0%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 12.0% 28.9%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 12.3% 28.7%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 12.4% 26.9%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 12.5% 27.6%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 12.9% 27.8%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 12.9% 29.2%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 12.9% 28.9%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 13.1% 27.3%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 12.2% 25.5%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 11.3% 24.0%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 11.5% 22.8%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 10.8% 22.6%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 9.9% 22.4%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 9.8% 22.9%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 8.8% 20.2%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 8.1% 20.9%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 8.1% 18.0%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 7.9% 15.3%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 7.4% 19.1%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 6.9% 16.3%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 6.5% 13.0%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 6.3% 14.0%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 6.1% 13.6%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 5.8% 11.2%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 5.4% 12.1%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Croatia,
ages 15 to 74
Croatia,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 14.8% 36.5%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 15.5% 37.2%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 16.0% 37.7%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 16.4% 39.2%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 16.2% 40.1%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 16.0% 40.0%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 15.9% 40.0%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 15.7% 39.2%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 15.8% 38.2%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 15.6% 37.0%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 15.2% 35.9%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 14.6% 34.5%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 14.1% 34.2%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 14.1% 33.7%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 14.0% 33.6%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 14.0% 34.0%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 14.1% 33.6%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 13.9% 32.9%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 13.8% 32.6%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 13.7% 32.6%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 13.5% 32.8%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 13.2% 32.4%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 12.8% 31.6%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 12.6% 30.8%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 12.2% 29.9%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 11.8% 29.1%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 11.4% 28.2%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 11.1% 27.8%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 10.4% 26.3%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 9.9% 25.4%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 10.1% 25.5%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 9.4% 25.1%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 9.0% 24.5%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 8.7% 23.7%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 8.5% 23.6%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 8.3% 23.3%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 8.6% 24.0%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 9.2% 25.1%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 9.5% 25.5%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 10.0% 26.5%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 10.7% 28.6%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 11.5% 31.6%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 12.1% 33.8%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 12.8% 36.0%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 13.2% 37.1%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 13.5% 36.8%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 14.0% 37.0%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 14.1% 36.8%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 14.8% 38.1%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 15.4% 40.4%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 16.1% 43.7%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 16.8% 47.3%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 17.2% 48.9%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 17.4% 49.8%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 17.3% 48.9%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 17.5% 47.3%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 17.6% 46.6%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 17.5% 46.1%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 17.0% 44.2%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 16.8% 43.7%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 16.8% 44.0%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 16.4% 42.8%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 15.9% 41.1%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 15.4% 38.3%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 14.3% 34.6%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 13.5% 32.3%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 13.0% 31.4%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 12.6% 30.5%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 12.0% 28.9%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 11.3% 27.3%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 10.8% 26.4%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 10.1% 25.1%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 9.5% 23.6%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Cyprus,
ages 15 to 74
Cyprus,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 4.8% 10.5%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 5.2% 10.4%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 4.7% 9.6%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 4.7% 9.1%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 3.9% 8.7%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 4.2% 8.4%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 3.8% 8.0%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 3.8% 7.9%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 3.1% 7.8%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 3.5% 7.9%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 3.5% 8.0%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 3.9% 8.3%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 3.6% 8.5%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 4.3% 9.1%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 4.2% 8.6%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 4.4% 8.7%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 3.9% 8.7%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 4.6% 9.3%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 4.8% 10.7%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 5.2% 12.0%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 5.1% 13.5%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 5.7% 13.9%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 5.3% 14.4%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 5.2% 12.4%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 5.2% 11.4%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 4.6% 10.3%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 4.1% 8.9%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 4.4% 9.9%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 4.2% 10.1%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 3.7% 9.6%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 4.0% 10.6%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 3.8% 10.1%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 3.8% 9.8%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 3.5% 7.9%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 3.6% 8.7%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 3.7% 9.4%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 4.1% 10.1%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 5.4% 13.2%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 5.6% 15.5%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 6.4% 16.6%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 6.3% 17.8%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 6.5% 17.3%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 6.3% 15.5%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 6.0% 15.3%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 6.6% 18.6%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 7.5% 20.5%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 8.1% 23.8%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 9.4% 25.9%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 10.2% 24.9%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 11.7% 26.6%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 12.3% 28.3%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 13.3% 32.4%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 14.8% 35.2%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 16.0% 39.3%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 16.4% 40.4%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 16.5% 40.3%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 15.8% 37.2%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 16.1% 36.8%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 16.3% 35.4%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 16.5% 34.4%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 16.4% 35.1%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 15.3% 32.7%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 14.7% 31.6%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 13.2% 30.5%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 13.0% 29.5%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 12.8% 28.1%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 13.1% 29.1%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 13.0% 28.1%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 12.4% 26.2%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 11.4% 26.5%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 10.4% 25.0%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 10.3% 23.1%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 9.4% 22.4%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Czech Republic,
ages 15 to 74
Czech Republic,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 9.2% 17.3%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 8.9% 16.7%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 8.6% 16.8%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 8.4% 17.3%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 8.2% 16.8%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 8.1% 16.1%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 8.2% 16.8%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 7.9% 16.4%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 7.5% 16.4%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 7.2% 15.6%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 7.2% 16.3%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 7.3% 15.7%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 7.4% 16.8%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 7.7% 16.7%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 8.0% 17.9%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 8.2% 19.1%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 8.4% 19.9%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 8.3% 20.1%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 8.3% 20.6%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 8.3% 21.3%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 8.1% 20.5%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 7.9% 18.7%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 7.8% 18.2%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 7.9% 19.1%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 7.7% 19.3%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 7.3% 17.9%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 7.0% 17.4%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 6.6% 15.2%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 5.8% 12.1%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 5.5% 11.5%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 5.1% 9.9%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 4.9% 9.4%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 4.5% 10.2%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 4.4% 10.0%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 4.2% 9.5%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 4.4% 10.0%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 5.6% 13.0%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 6.5% 15.7%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 7.3% 17.8%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 7.4% 20.0%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 7.7% 19.7%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 7.3% 18.8%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 7.1% 17.8%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 7.0% 17.2%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 6.9% 17.4%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 6.9% 18.9%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 6.6% 17.9%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 6.5% 18.2%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 6.8% 19.3%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 6.9% 19.8%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 7.0% 19.0%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 7.2% 19.6%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 7.2% 19.4%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 7.0% 18.6%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 6.9% 18.8%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 6.8% 19.0%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 6.5% 16.8%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 6.2% 16.5%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 5.9% 15.5%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 5.8% 14.4%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 5.8% 14.3%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 5.1% 13.3%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 4.8% 12.0%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 4.5% 10.9%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 4.2% 10.0%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 4.1% 11.3%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 4.0% 10.5%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 3.6% 10.1%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 3.3% 9.0%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 3.1% 9.6%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 2.7% 7.6%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 2.4% 5.7%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 2.3% 6.9%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Denmark,
ages 15 to 74
Denmark,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 4.7% 7.0%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 4.4% 6.5%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 4.1% 6.1%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 4.1% 5.4%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 4.3% 6.7%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 4.3% 8.4%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 4.6% 8.9%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 4.7% 8.9%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 4.4% 7.6%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 4.4% 6.7%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 4.9% 7.5%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 4.8% 8.2%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 5.0% 9.9%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 5.5% 9.4%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 5.4% 9.3%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 5.8% 8.4%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 5.6% 8.7%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 5.4% 8.2%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 5.6% 7.7%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 5.4% 7.9%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 5.3% 8.0%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 5.1% 8.8%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 4.7% 8.8%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 4.2% 8.6%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 4.2% 8.8%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 4.1% 8.1%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 3.7% 6.9%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 3.7% 7.2%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 3.9% 7.2%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 3.6% 7.1%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 4.0% 8.3%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 3.6% 6.8%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 3.2% 7.5%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 3.2% 7.8%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 3.4% 8.2%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 4.0% 8.9%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 4.9% 10.2%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 5.8% 11.8%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 6.3% 11.8%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 7.0% 13.5%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 7.3% 14.0%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 7.6% 13.4%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 7.4% 13.8%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 7.6% 14.4%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 7.5% 13.9%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 7.4% 14.2%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 7.6% 14.7%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 7.7% 14.3%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 7.6% 14.8%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 7.8% 14.6%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 7.5% 13.2%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 7.3% 13.5%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 7.2% 13.1%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 6.9% 12.6%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 7.0% 12.9%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 7.0% 13.3%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 6.8% 13.7%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 6.4% 12.6%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 6.5% 12.2%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 6.3% 11.4%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 6.3% 10.7%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 6.3% 10.8%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 6.1% 11.1%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 6.0% 10.8%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 6.0% 11.3%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 6.2% 11.7%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 6.3% 12.2%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 6.3% 12.8%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 6.1% 12.0%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 5.7% 10.9%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 5.7% 11.3%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 5.4% 9.9%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 5.0% 9.7%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Estonia,
ages 15 to 74
Estonia,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 13.9% 23.9%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 14.2% 23.5%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 14.1% 23.1%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 14.3% 24.6%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 14.1% 24.8%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 13.6% 23.5%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 12.8% 20.7%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 11.7% 19.1%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 11.5% 18.5%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 10.8% 18.6%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 11.3% 17.6%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 11.7% 18.5%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 11.2% 20.4%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 11.0% 23.5%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 9.9% 21.9%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 9.7% 20.6%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 10.1% 26.9%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 9.7% 22.3%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 10.2% 22.1%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 9.7% 19.3%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 9.0% 14.6%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 8.1% 15.9%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 7.7% 15.3%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 7.2% 14.2%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 6.4% 14.3%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 6.2% 12.6%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 5.8% 11.8%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 5.4% 11.7%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 5.0% 10.9%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 4.8% 10.0%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 4.1% 8.9%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 4.1% 8.4%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 4.3% 8.2%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 4.2% 8.8%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 6.5% 14.7%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 8.1% 18.4%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 10.7% 22.3%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 12.9% 26.6%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 14.7% 30.4%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 16.1% 30.8%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 18.6% 37.5%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 18.0% 36.8%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 15.9% 31.0%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 14.4% 25.5%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 13.9% 19.6%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 12.9% 21.1%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 11.5% 25.1%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 11.4% 23.8%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 10.8% 21.5%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 10.0% 23.4%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 9.9% 21.3%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 9.4% 18.0%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 9.3% 19.6%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 8.0% 16.2%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 8.3% 16.9%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 8.7% 18.9%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 8.0% 17.3%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 7.1% 16.3%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 7.7% 14.0%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 6.7% 14.2%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 6.2% 12.5%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 6.4% 10.7%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 5.8% 13.0%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 6.5% 17.1%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 6.2% 13.6%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 6.5% 13.1%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 7.5% 14.2%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 6.8% 13.4%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 5.3% 13.3%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 6.5% 15.5%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 6.0% 12.1%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 5.5% 7.9%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 6.0% 9.0%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Finland,
ages 15 to 74
Finland,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 10.2% 22.0%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 9.8% 21.4%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 9.6% 20.9%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 9.4% 20.4%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 9.2% 20.2%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 9.2% 20.1%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 9.2% 20.2%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 9.1% 20.5%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 9.1% 20.9%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 9.1% 20.8%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 9.1% 20.6%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 9.0% 20.8%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 8.9% 21.0%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 9.1% 21.3%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 9.0% 21.5%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 9.0% 21.9%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 9.0% 21.6%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 9.0% 21.1%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 8.7% 20.7%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 8.7% 20.8%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 8.6% 20.5%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 8.4% 20.3%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 8.2% 20.0%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 8.1% 19.3%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 8.0% 19.2%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 7.8% 19.1%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 7.6% 18.4%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 7.3% 17.7%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 7.1% 17.3%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 6.9% 16.7%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 6.8% 16.3%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 6.6% 16.0%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 6.4% 16.0%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 6.3% 16.4%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 6.4% 17.2%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 6.7% 17.6%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 7.3% 18.3%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 8.0% 19.8%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 8.4% 21.2%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 8.6% 21.7%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 8.6% 21.7%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 8.4% 21.3%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 8.3% 21.0%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 8.1% 20.7%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 8.0% 20.3%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 7.8% 20.1%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 7.8% 20.1%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 7.7% 20.1%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 7.6% 19.5%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 7.7% 18.9%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 7.9% 19.0%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 7.9% 19.3%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 8.0% 19.7%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 8.0% 19.9%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 8.2% 20.2%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 8.3% 20.0%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 8.4% 20.3%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 8.6% 20.3%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 8.8% 20.8%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 9.0% 21.3%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 9.1% 21.8%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 9.3% 22.2%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 9.4% 22.0%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 9.3% 21.7%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 9.1% 21.4%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 8.9% 20.8%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 8.7% 20.3%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 8.7% 20.2%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 8.7% 20.2%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 8.7% 20.2%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 8.5% 19.6%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 8.4% 18.9%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 8.1% 18.5%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
France,
ages 15 to 74
France,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 9.6% 18.0%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 9.3% 17.1%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 9.0% 16.5%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 8.8% 16.0%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 8.6% 15.8%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 8.5% 15.8%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 8.4% 16.1%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 8.4% 16.4%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 8.2% 16.5%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 8.2% 16.7%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 8.3% 17.0%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 8.4% 17.5%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 8.3% 17.9%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 8.4% 18.7%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 8.5% 19.1%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 8.8% 19.8%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 8.8% 20.2%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 8.8% 20.4%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 8.8% 20.4%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 8.9% 20.5%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 8.7% 20.6%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 8.8% 20.6%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 8.9% 21.4%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 9.1% 21.6%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 9.1% 22.2%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 9.0% 22.3%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 8.8% 21.9%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 8.5% 21.5%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 8.4% 20.8%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 8.1% 19.8%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 7.9% 18.9%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 7.5% 18.3%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 7.3% 17.9%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 7.3% 18.6%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 7.5% 19.5%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 7.8% 20.8%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 8.5% 22.4%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 9.1% 23.4%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 9.2% 23.8%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 9.5% 24.2%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 9.3% 23.3%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 9.4% 23.8%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 9.2% 23.4%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 9.1% 22.6%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 9.1% 23.3%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 9.1% 22.7%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 9.2% 21.8%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 9.4% 22.8%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 9.5% 23.0%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 9.6% 23.6%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 9.8% 24.5%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 10.2% 26.2%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 10.3% 25.7%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 10.4% 25.3%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 10.3% 24.6%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 10.2% 24.1%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 10.3% 23.8%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 10.2% 23.9%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 10.3% 24.3%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 10.4% 24.8%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 10.4% 24.8%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 10.5% 24.6%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 10.4% 24.7%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 10.2% 24.5%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 10.2% 24.8%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 10.1% 24.3%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 10.0% 25.2%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 10.0% 23.9%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 9.6% 22.6%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 9.5% 23.1%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 9.5% 22.2%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 9.1% 21.4%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 9.2% 21.5%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Germany,
ages 15 to 74
Germany,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 8.1% 8.9%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 8.0% 8.8%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 7.9% 8.6%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 7.8% 8.3%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 7.7% 8.1%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 7.7% 8.0%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 7.8% 8.4%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 8.0% 8.8%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 8.2% 9.2%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 8.4% 9.6%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 8.7% 10.0%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 9.1% 10.4%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 9.5% 11.0%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 9.7% 11.3%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 9.8% 11.6%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 9.8% 11.9%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 10.1% 13.3%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 10.3% 14.4%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 10.4% 14.4%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 10.6% 14.5%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 10.9% 14.9%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 11.2% 15.8%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 11.2% 15.3%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 10.8% 14.6%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 10.5% 14.1%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 10.2% 13.7%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 9.9% 13.5%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 9.6% 13.0%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 9.0% 12.3%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 8.6% 11.8%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 8.4% 11.5%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 8.2% 11.3%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 7.8% 10.9%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 7.5% 10.3%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 7.1% 10.0%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 7.1% 10.3%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 7.5% 10.9%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 7.8% 11.4%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 7.8% 11.4%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 7.6% 11.2%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 7.3% 10.7%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 7.0% 10.0%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 6.8% 9.4%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 6.6% 9.1%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 6.2% 8.9%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 5.9% 8.6%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 5.7% 8.4%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 5.6% 8.2%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 5.4% 8.1%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 5.4% 8.1%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 5.3% 8.0%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 5.3% 7.9%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 5.4% 7.7%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 5.3% 7.7%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 5.2% 7.9%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 5.1% 8.0%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 5.1% 7.9%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 5.0% 7.8%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 5.0% 7.6%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 4.9% 7.4%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 4.8% 7.2%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 4.7% 7.1%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 4.6% 7.0%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 4.5% 7.1%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 4.3% 7.2%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 4.2% 7.2%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 4.1% 7.0%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 3.9% 6.8%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 3.9% 6.7%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 3.8% 6.6%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 3.7% 6.6%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 3.6% 6.4%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 3.5% 6.3%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Greece,
ages 15 to 74
Greece,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 11.6% 29.8%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 11.5% 29.5%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 11.2% 29.2%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 10.6% 27.9%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 10.5% 28.0%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 10.7% 28.2%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 10.6% 27.7%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 10.9% 28.2%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 10.7% 27.8%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 10.3% 26.8%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 10.2% 26.6%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 10.0% 26.1%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 9.7% 26.0%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 9.7% 26.5%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 9.7% 27.5%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 9.9% 27.4%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 10.9% 27.8%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 10.6% 26.3%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 10.5% 25.6%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 10.4% 26.0%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 10.1% 25.2%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 10.0% 25.2%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 10.1% 26.3%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 9.8% 26.2%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 9.4% 25.0%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 9.1% 24.6%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 8.7% 24.4%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 8.8% 25.7%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 8.8% 24.7%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 8.4% 22.0%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 8.3% 22.2%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 8.1% 21.7%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 8.0% 22.7%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 7.6% 20.9%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 7.6% 21.6%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 8.0% 22.5%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 9.1% 24.9%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 9.3% 24.8%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 9.8% 25.5%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 10.4% 28.1%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 11.3% 29.9%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 12.2% 31.4%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 13.0% 33.2%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 14.3% 36.7%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 15.5% 39.7%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 16.9% 43.2%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 18.5% 45.8%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 20.7% 49.7%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 22.2% 52.4%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 24.1% 54.2%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 25.6% 57.1%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 26.2% 58.2%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 27.0% 59.6%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 27.7% 59.5%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 27.7% 57.8%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 27.6% 56.7%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 27.2% 56.3%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 26.9% 52.5%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 26.2% 50.4%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 25.9% 51.3%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 25.8% 51.2%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 25.0% 49.8%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 24.7% 49.2%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 24.3% 49.0%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 24.1% 50.2%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 23.5% 48.6%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 23.3% 44.8%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 23.3% 45.7%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 22.6% 46.2%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 21.5% 43.8%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 20.9% 40.8%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 21.0% 43.2%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 20.5% 43.8%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Hungary,
ages 15 to 74
Hungary,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 6.6% 12.4%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 6.4% 12.2%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 6.1% 11.7%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 5.9% 11.2%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 5.7% 11.0%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 5.6% 11.0%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 5.5% 11.0%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 5.5% 11.1%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 5.5% 11.5%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 5.5% 11.6%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 5.6% 12.0%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 5.7% 12.8%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 5.7% 12.8%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 5.8% 13.1%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 5.7% 13.3%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 5.7% 13.4%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 5.8% 13.8%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 5.9% 15.1%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 6.2% 15.9%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 6.4% 17.3%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 6.8% 18.7%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 7.2% 19.8%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 7.4% 19.7%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 7.4% 19.2%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 7.4% 18.7%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 7.4% 18.3%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 7.6% 19.6%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 7.5% 19.5%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 7.2% 17.9%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 7.2% 17.1%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 7.4% 17.9%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 7.8% 19.6%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 7.6% 19.3%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 7.6% 19.3%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 7.8% 19.5%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 8.2% 20.3%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 9.2% 24.0%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 9.8% 25.8%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 10.4% 26.9%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 10.7% 28.0%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 11.2% 27.0%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 11.3% 26.9%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 11.1% 26.4%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 11.1% 25.7%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 11.2% 25.9%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 11.0% 25.1%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 11.0% 25.9%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 11.0% 27.0%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 11.3% 27.9%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 11.1% 28.5%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 10.7% 28.9%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 10.9% 28.2%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 10.9% 28.0%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 10.3% 26.7%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 10.1% 26.5%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 9.2% 24.2%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 7.9% 20.9%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 8.1% 21.3%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 7.5% 20.7%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 7.3% 19.0%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 7.4% 19.0%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 7.0% 18.2%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 6.6% 16.6%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 6.3% 15.0%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 5.7% 14.2%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 5.2% 13.7%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 4.9% 12.2%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 4.5% 11.6%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 4.3% 10.6%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 4.3% 11.3%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 4.1% 10.7%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 3.9% 10.5%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 3.7% 10.4%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Ireland,
ages 15 to 74
Ireland,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 4.9% 7.4%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 4.7% 7.2%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 4.4% 6.8%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 4.0% 6.3%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 4.0% 6.5%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 4.0% 6.9%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 4.4% 7.7%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 4.4% 7.9%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 4.5% 8.3%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 4.6% 8.5%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 4.5% 8.0%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 5.3% 9.5%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 4.8% 8.9%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 4.8% 8.7%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 5.0% 9.1%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 4.7% 8.7%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 5.1% 9.2%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 4.7% 8.6%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 4.5% 8.8%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 4.7% 8.7%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 4.4% 8.3%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 4.9% 8.9%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 4.7% 8.9%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 4.5% 8.6%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 4.7% 9.0%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 4.8% 9.1%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 5.0% 8.8%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 4.6% 8.0%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 4.9% 8.9%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 5.0% 9.4%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 4.9% 8.9%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 5.2% 9.4%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 5.4% 10.3%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 5.9% 11.5%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 7.4% 15.0%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 8.5% 17.3%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 10.9% 20.4%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 12.6% 24.2%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 13.3% 25.9%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 13.8% 27.4%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 13.8% 27.4%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 14.3% 27.0%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 14.6% 27.9%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 15.6% 30.5%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 15.1% 29.3%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 15.0% 28.5%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 15.6% 30.0%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 15.9% 30.9%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 15.9% 31.4%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 15.5% 31.4%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 15.5% 31.1%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 15.0% 29.3%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 14.5% 28.0%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 14.4% 27.6%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 13.4% 26.1%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 12.9% 25.3%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 12.8% 25.8%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 12.2% 24.8%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 11.7% 22.4%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 10.9% 20.8%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 10.6% 22.0%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 10.1% 20.2%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 9.6% 19.5%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 9.4% 19.3%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 8.9% 17.4%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 8.9% 17.3%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 8.3% 16.5%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 7.5% 15.8%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 7.2% 13.8%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 6.7% 15.2%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 6.7% 15.2%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 6.4% 13.1%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 5.8% 13.4%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Italy,
ages 15 to 74
Italy,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 10.6% 27.5%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 10.3% 27.6%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 10.0% 27.1%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 9.6% 25.7%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 9.4% 24.6%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 9.1% 24.0%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 9.0% 24.2%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 8.9% 23.5%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 8.5% 23.3%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 8.8% 23.1%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 8.6% 23.1%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 8.4% 22.7%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 8.7% 24.2%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 8.5% 24.8%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 8.4% 23.3%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 8.2% 22.2%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 8.2% 23.3%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 8.0% 23.8%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 7.8% 22.8%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 7.9% 24.1%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 7.8% 24.1%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 7.8% 23.7%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 7.6% 24.7%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 7.6% 23.5%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 7.3% 23.4%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 6.9% 22.1%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 6.6% 20.4%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 6.4% 20.8%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 6.1% 20.2%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 6.0% 19.8%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 6.2% 20.4%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 6.3% 21.1%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 6.6% 20.4%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 6.8% 21.2%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 6.7% 21.4%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 6.9% 22.7%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 7.3% 24.0%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 7.5% 24.5%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 8.0% 26.1%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 8.2% 26.5%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 8.4% 27.0%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 8.5% 28.3%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 8.2% 27.7%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 8.2% 28.1%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 8.0% 27.6%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 8.0% 28.6%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 8.5% 30.0%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 9.2% 30.9%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 10.0% 33.2%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 10.6% 35.0%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 10.8% 35.6%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 11.3% 37.5%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 11.8% 39.0%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 12.1% 39.0%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 12.2% 40.5%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 12.3% 42.0%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 12.8% 43.2%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 12.4% 42.6%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 12.6% 42.7%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 12.8% 41.9%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 12.4% 42.0%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 12.2% 41.6%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 11.5% 39.2%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 11.5% 38.4%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 11.6% 38.5%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 11.6% 36.9%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 11.7% 37.4%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 11.8% 38.1%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 11.5% 36.1%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 11.2% 35.5%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 11.2% 34.6%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 11.0% 33.6%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 11.0% 32.5%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Latvia,
ages 15 to 74
Latvia,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 14.3% 22.6%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 14.4% 22.0%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 14.4% 22.6%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 14.4% 23.3%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 13.8% 22.4%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 13.1% 22.2%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 13.1% 22.1%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 13.8% 23.5%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 12.6% 18.3%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 13.6% 23.0%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 11.5% 19.6%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 12.3% 20.8%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 11.3% 20.0%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 11.8% 17.9%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 12.4% 21.8%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 11.1% 18.7%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 11.8% 20.3%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 11.4% 18.7%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 11.8% 20.5%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 11.9% 19.9%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 11.1% 16.9%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 10.1% 17.8%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 10.0% 12.1%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 8.8% 13.4%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 8.2% 14.2%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 6.9% 17.2%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 6.4% 10.6%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 6.5% 12.5%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 6.7% 11.5%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 6.1% 10.6%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 5.9% 12.1%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 5.5% 8.1%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 6.4% 10.5%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 6.5% 10.5%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 7.7% 12.9%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 10.5% 21.6%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 13.6% 28.7%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 17.2% 29.5%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 19.4% 35.7%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 20.2% 39.2%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 20.4% 40.3%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 20.4% 36.0%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 19.1% 34.8%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 18.0% 33.3%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 16.9% 31.9%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 17.0% 33.2%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 15.5% 30.3%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 15.3% 28.8%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 15.7% 29.9%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 16.2% 30.4%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 13.9% 30.6%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 14.2% 23.0%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 12.5% 23.6%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 11.5% 20.1%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 11.9% 25.9%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 11.4% 22.4%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 11.5% 19.3%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 10.7% 21.1%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 10.8% 19.9%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 10.4% 18.1%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 9.9% 15.9%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 9.8% 15.2%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 9.9% 14.8%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 9.9% 19.4%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 9.9% 15.8%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 9.6% 19.1%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 9.7% 18.0%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 9.4% 16.6%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 9.0% 17.8%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 8.9% 16.6%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 8.6% 16.1%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 8.3% 17.6%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 7.9% 14.9%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Lithuania,
ages 15 to 74
Lithuania,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 15.6% 29.1%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 16.5% 29.3%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 17.0% 31.2%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 16.6% 30.7%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 17.7% 31.0%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 17.5% 32.4%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 16.8% 30.3%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 17.5% 30.7%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 15.9% 24.7%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 13.5% 22.6%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 12.9% 23.1%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 12.8% 21.5%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 12.5% 21.3%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 13.0% 28.3%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 12.4% 25.4%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 11.8% 24.1%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 11.4% 22.8%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 10.9% 21.6%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 10.8% 21.9%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 10.5% 20.8%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 9.5% 18.7%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 9.0% 17.3%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 7.7% 13.8%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 7.0% 13.3%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 6.4% 11.1%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 5.8% 10.4%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 5.8% 10.1%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 5.1% 8.4%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 4.4% 9.1%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 4.3% 7.9%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 4.2% 8.0%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 4.1% 8.6%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 4.2% 9.1%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 4.4% 10.8%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 6.4% 14.5%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 8.3% 18.8%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 10.7% 23.7%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 13.3% 29.4%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 14.9% 32.0%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 16.3% 33.7%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 17.3% 36.0%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 18.2% 35.5%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 18.2% 36.0%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 17.6% 35.3%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 16.8% 33.3%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 15.8% 34.8%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 15.3% 31.7%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 13.7% 30.3%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 14.0% 29.8%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 13.5% 26.6%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 13.1% 26.0%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 13.0% 24.5%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 12.1% 20.6%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 11.7% 20.8%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 11.7% 24.0%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 11.7% 22.1%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 11.3% 19.2%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 11.0% 20.7%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 10.2% 18.4%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 10.4% 18.7%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 9.3% 19.0%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 9.3% 16.6%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 9.2% 15.7%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 8.8% 13.8%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 8.1% 14.1%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 8.0% 15.3%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 7.8% 13.6%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 7.7% 14.8%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 7.7% 14.0%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 7.2% 13.2%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 6.8% 12.7%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 6.8% 13.1%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 6.4% 12.4%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Luxembourg,
ages 15 to 74
Luxembourg,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 2.3% 6.5%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 2.3% 6.2%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 2.3% 6.4%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 2.0% 6.3%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 1.9% 6.3%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 1.9% 6.2%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 1.9% 6.3%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 2.0% 5.9%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 2.1% 6.2%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 2.4% 6.6%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 2.7% 7.3%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 3.0% 8.2%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 3.3% 9.3%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 3.6% 10.3%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 4.0% 11.7%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 4.3% 13.3%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 4.7% 15.0%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 5.0% 16.5%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 5.1% 16.9%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 5.0% 16.1%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 4.7% 15.0%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 4.7% 14.7%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 4.6% 14.1%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 4.6% 15.1%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 4.6% 14.7%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 4.5% 15.2%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 4.6% 15.9%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 4.6% 16.0%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 4.4% 15.8%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 4.1% 15.5%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 4.0% 15.6%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 4.2% 15.4%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 4.4% 15.5%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 4.8% 17.3%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 5.1% 18.0%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 5.2% 18.6%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 5.4% 18.4%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 5.3% 17.9%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 5.1% 16.2%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 4.9% 15.9%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 4.6% 16.2%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 4.5% 15.0%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 4.4% 14.2%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 4.7% 15.0%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 4.7% 14.6%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 4.8% 15.4%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 5.0% 17.9%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 4.8% 17.9%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 5.0% 18.3%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 5.1% 18.6%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 5.1% 18.3%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 5.3% 18.4%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 5.6% 18.5%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 5.8% 17.2%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 6.0% 15.4%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 6.0% 15.6%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 6.0% 18.1%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 6.0% 21.6%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 6.0% 22.6%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 6.1% 21.5%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 6.3% 18.4%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 6.5% 17.0%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 6.5% 17.3%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 6.5% 17.7%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 6.4% 18.9%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 6.3% 19.3%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 6.3% 18.5%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 6.2% 18.3%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 5.9% 16.8%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 5.6% 15.7%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 5.5% 15.2%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 5.3% 14.1%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 5.3% 14.0%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Malta,
ages 15 to 74
Malta,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 6.9% 13.4%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 6.7% 13.2%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 6.6% 13.4%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 6.7% 14.6%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 7.2% 17.0%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 7.7% 19.1%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 7.8% 19.5%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 7.9% 19.7%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 7.7% 17.8%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 6.9% 14.9%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 6.6% 12.4%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 6.8% 14.0%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 6.7% 12.9%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 7.3% 16.3%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 8.4% 19.2%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 7.9% 17.2%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 7.3% 16.7%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 7.1% 17.2%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 7.5% 17.1%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 6.9% 15.2%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 6.9% 15.5%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 7.2% 15.7%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 6.6% 16.2%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 7.0% 17.1%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 7.3% 16.0%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 7.0% 15.2%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 6.7% 15.9%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 6.2% 14.8%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 7.2% 15.5%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 6.4% 13.2%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 6.3% 13.7%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 6.0% 11.7%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 6.0% 12.2%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 5.8% 10.5%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 6.0% 11.9%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 6.1% 12.2%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 6.5% 13.1%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 7.0% 14.9%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 6.9% 14.0%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 7.1% 15.9%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 7.1% 13.4%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 6.7% 14.1%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 6.7% 10.6%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 7.0% 14.7%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 6.6% 14.6%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 6.6% 13.4%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 6.0% 12.4%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 6.3% 13.0%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 6.4% 13.9%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 6.4% 14.9%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 6.3% 14.5%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 6.1% 13.0%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 6.1% 12.1%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 6.7% 14.7%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 6.5% 13.3%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 6.4% 11.9%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 6.0% 13.9%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 5.8% 11.6%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 5.9% 12.1%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 5.6% 9.3%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 5.7% 10.1%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 5.4% 12.3%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 5.3% 13.5%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 5.3% 11.1%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 4.9% 9.5%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 4.8% 9.8%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 4.8% 12.4%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 4.3% 12.2%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 4.6% 12.2%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 4.6% 11.2%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 4.6% 10.2%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 4.6% 11.6%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 4.4% 8.4%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Netherlands,
ages 15 to 74
Netherlands,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 3.9% 8.7%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 3.7% 8.4%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 3.6% 8.0%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 3.4% 7.6%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 3.2% 7.1%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 3.1% 6.7%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 3.1% 6.6%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 3.1% 6.6%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 3.3% 6.8%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 3.5% 7.1%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 3.8% 7.6%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 4.1% 8.2%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 4.4% 9.2%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 4.7% 9.9%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 5.0% 10.3%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 5.3% 10.2%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 5.5% 10.9%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 5.8% 11.6%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 5.7% 11.5%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 5.8% 11.7%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 6.0% 12.0%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 6.0% 12.1%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 5.9% 11.9%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 5.8% 11.5%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 5.4% 11.0%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 5.1% 9.9%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 4.8% 9.6%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 4.7% 9.5%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 4.4% 9.5%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 4.1% 9.4%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 4.1% 9.7%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 3.9% 8.9%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 3.7% 8.5%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 3.7% 8.7%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 3.6% 8.5%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 3.6% 8.5%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 3.8% 9.1%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 4.2% 9.9%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 4.6% 10.6%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 4.9% 11.2%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 5.1% 11.4%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 5.0% 11.2%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 5.0% 11.0%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 4.9% 10.8%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 4.9% 9.9%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 4.7% 9.3%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 5.0% 10.0%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 5.3% 10.6%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 5.5% 11.5%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 5.7% 11.5%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 5.9% 11.7%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 6.2% 12.1%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 6.8% 12.5%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 7.1% 12.8%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 7.5% 13.6%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 7.6% 13.8%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 7.8% 13.6%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 7.6% 13.0%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 7.2% 12.4%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 7.2% 11.9%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 7.1% 11.2%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 6.9% 11.0%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 6.8% 11.4%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 6.7% 11.3%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 6.5% 11.3%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 6.3% 11.1%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 5.8% 10.6%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 5.5% 10.3%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 5.2% 9.7%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 5.0% 9.1%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 4.7% 8.7%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 4.4% 7.9%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 4.1% 7.2%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Poland,
ages 15 to 74
Poland,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 15.8% 35.5%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 16.2% 35.6%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 16.0% 34.3%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 16.5% 34.9%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 17.4% 36.8%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 18.3% 39.2%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 18.5% 40.4%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 19.0% 41.6%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 19.5% 41.3%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 20.0% 41.8%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 20.4% 42.9%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 20.3% 44.0%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 19.8% 42.5%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 19.6% 41.7%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 19.9% 42.2%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 19.8% 41.3%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 19.9% 41.5%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 19.3% 40.4%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 18.9% 38.9%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 18.4% 37.5%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 18.2% 37.9%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 18.4% 38.9%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 18.0% 36.1%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 17.1% 34.6%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 15.5% 33.0%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 14.4% 30.6%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 13.5% 28.5%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 12.4% 27.0%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 10.8% 24.4%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 9.8% 22.3%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 9.3% 21.0%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 8.6% 18.7%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 7.5% 17.8%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 7.2% 17.6%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 6.8% 16.3%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 6.8% 17.2%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 7.6% 18.1%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 7.9% 19.7%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 8.3% 22.1%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 8.7% 22.6%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 9.7% 23.1%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 9.7% 24.0%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 9.6% 24.1%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 9.5% 23.6%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 9.4% 25.1%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 9.6% 25.6%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 9.7% 26.0%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 9.9% 26.4%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 9.9% 26.2%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 10.0% 26.3%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 10.3% 26.3%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 10.4% 27.3%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 10.5% 27.8%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 10.5% 27.2%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 10.3% 27.1%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 10.1% 27.1%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 9.8% 26.0%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 9.2% 24.3%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 8.6% 23.3%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 8.3% 21.7%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 8.0% 22.3%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 7.6% 21.0%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 7.3% 19.8%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 7.0% 19.9%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 6.7% 19.1%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 6.3% 18.0%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 6.0% 17.9%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 5.6% 15.6%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 5.2% 14.9%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 5.1% 15.7%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 4.8% 14.5%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 4.5% 14.2%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 4.0% 11.5%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Portugal,
ages 15 to 74
Portugal,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 5.3% 13.1%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 5.1% 12.8%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 5.1% 12.4%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 4.8% 12.1%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 5.1% 13.0%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 5.2% 13.7%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 5.2% 12.9%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 5.1% 13.7%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 5.3% 14.1%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 5.9% 15.3%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 6.2% 16.0%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 7.1% 16.9%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 7.3% 17.6%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 7.6% 18.7%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 7.4% 19.0%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 7.5% 19.5%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 7.3% 19.3%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 7.7% 19.5%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 8.1% 20.4%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 8.1% 19.8%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 8.4% 20.1%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 8.6% 21.1%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 9.0% 21.2%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 9.0% 20.5%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 8.7% 20.0%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 8.7% 20.7%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 8.8% 21.7%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 9.2% 22.1%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 9.3% 22.3%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 9.3% 21.5%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 9.1% 21.0%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 8.9% 21.2%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 8.5% 20.9%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 8.6% 20.6%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 8.9% 22.2%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 8.9% 22.6%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 9.7% 24.4%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 10.5% 25.2%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 11.2% 24.8%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 11.2% 26.8%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 11.5% 27.4%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 12.1% 27.3%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 12.4% 29.3%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 12.2% 27.8%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 12.2% 27.1%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 12.5% 28.6%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 12.8% 30.7%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 13.9% 34.5%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 14.6% 35.3%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 15.5% 37.1%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 16.2% 39.8%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 16.9% 39.6%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 17.3% 41.3%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 17.0% 38.9%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 16.0% 37.1%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 15.4% 35.2%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 14.9% 36.4%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 14.4% 37.0%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 13.6% 32.8%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 13.5% 33.1%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 13.5% 33.4%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 12.4% 31.2%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 12.3% 31.3%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 12.2% 31.9%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 12.2% 30.1%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 11.3% 28.2%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 10.9% 26.7%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 10.5% 27.0%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 9.9% 24.3%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 9.2% 23.8%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 8.8% 24.6%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 8.1% 22.8%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 7.6% 21.1%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Romania,
ages 15 to 74
Romania,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 7.4% 15.8%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 7.6% 16.7%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 7.8% 16.8%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 7.7% 16.6%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 7.4% 16.0%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 7.2% 16.5%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 7.3% 17.4%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 7.8% 18.1%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 8.6% 19.1%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 8.7% 20.4%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 8.5% 21.1%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 7.6% 18.8%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 7.6% 18.0%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 7.7% 18.3%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 7.6% 17.7%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 8.1% 19.7%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 8.1% 19.5%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 7.8% 21.2%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 8.0% 20.4%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 7.9% 20.5%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 7.9% 20.5%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 7.3% 18.3%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 6.5% 18.3%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 6.6% 19.3%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 7.1% 19.7%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 7.0% 19.2%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 7.5% 21.4%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 7.0% 20.2%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 6.6% 19.9%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 6.6% 19.8%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 6.2% 19.3%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 5.9% 17.7%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 5.7% 17.7%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 5.7% 17.7%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 5.4% 18.0%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 5.6% 17.0%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 6.1% 19.6%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 6.1% 19.4%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 6.8% 21.3%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 7.1% 19.2%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 7.3% 21.4%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 6.7% 21.9%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 6.9% 22.7%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 6.9% 22.5%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 6.9% 22.6%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 7.1% 22.9%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 7.3% 24.1%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 7.4% 26.1%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 6.9% 22.8%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 6.8% 22.8%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 6.8% 22.4%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 6.6% 22.2%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 6.9% 23.0%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 7.4% 24.6%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 7.0% 23.5%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 7.0% 23.9%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 6.9% 24.6%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 6.9% 25.3%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 6.8% 23.3%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 6.7% 22.8%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 7.0% 23.4%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 6.9% 22.0%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 6.8% 20.8%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 6.6% 20.4%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 6.3% 20.7%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 6.0% 21.2%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 5.9% 21.4%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 5.4% 19.2%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 5.2% 19.1%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 4.9% 17.3%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 4.9% 17.8%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 4.7% 19.7%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 4.5% 16.8%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Slovakia,
ages 15 to 74
Slovakia,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 18.5% 36.7%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 19.2% 38.0%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 19.0% 37.1%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 18.9% 37.8%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 19.4% 39.5%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 19.5% 39.8%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 19.5% 39.4%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 19.5% 39.7%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 19.0% 39.2%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 18.9% 38.6%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 18.8% 37.6%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 18.6% 37.0%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 18.0% 35.0%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 17.3% 34.0%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 17.5% 33.8%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 18.0% 32.7%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 18.9% 34.0%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 18.8% 33.9%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 18.0% 32.9%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 17.7% 32.9%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 17.1% 31.7%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 16.6% 29.8%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 16.1% 30.1%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 15.7% 30.0%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 14.7% 29.5%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 13.7% 27.6%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 13.1% 26.5%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 12.4% 23.8%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 11.5% 21.2%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 11.3% 20.3%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 11.4% 20.9%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 10.7% 20.1%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 10.3% 19.4%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 10.1% 19.9%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 9.1% 19.0%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 8.9% 19.2%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 10.2% 22.7%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 11.4% 26.1%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 12.8% 28.6%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 14.1% 31.9%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 14.9% 34.1%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 14.7% 34.2%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 14.3% 33.9%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 13.9% 33.6%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 13.8% 33.6%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 13.7% 34.4%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 13.6% 33.4%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 13.7% 33.7%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 13.8% 33.8%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 13.9% 33.7%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 14.0% 33.8%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 14.3% 34.9%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 14.3% 34.4%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 14.3% 34.4%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 14.2% 32.9%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 14.1% 33.1%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 13.9% 32.4%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 13.5% 31.2%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 13.0% 28.9%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 12.5% 26.8%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 12.2% 26.9%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 11.6% 26.9%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 11.3% 26.7%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 10.8% 25.2%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 10.4% 24.7%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 9.8% 22.3%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 9.5% 21.7%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 9.0% 20.2%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 8.7% 19.4%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 8.3% 19.3%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 7.9% 18.6%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 7.6% 18.3%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 7.1% 17.9%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Slovenia,
ages 15 to 74
Slovenia,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 6.8% 16.8%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 7.1% 16.8%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 6.8% 16.3%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 6.2% 15.0%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 6.1% 16.4%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 5.9% 16.6%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 6.1% 17.5%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 6.7% 20.2%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 6.6% 16.7%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 6.2% 16.1%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 6.2% 17.4%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 6.3% 16.1%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 6.6% 17.8%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 6.8% 16.6%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 6.8% 18.4%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 6.6% 16.2%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 6.5% 16.6%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 6.3% 15.6%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 6.2% 15.2%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 6.3% 17.3%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 6.4% 16.0%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 6.0% 14.0%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 6.6% 16.9%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 7.1% 16.7%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 6.5% 16.1%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 6.2% 15.8%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 5.8% 11.9%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 5.5% 11.2%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 5.3% 10.2%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 4.8% 9.0%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 4.6% 9.7%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 4.7% 11.4%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 4.7% 11.4%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 4.4% 10.4%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 4.3% 10.3%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 4.3% 10.0%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 4.9% 12.7%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 5.8% 13.4%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 6.5% 14.4%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 6.4% 13.9%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 6.7% 13.7%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 7.4% 16.7%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 7.4% 14.3%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 7.7% 14.2%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 8.0% 17.3%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 8.0% 14.0%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 8.2% 15.2%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 8.7% 16.2%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 8.1% 17.6%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 8.5% 18.5%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 9.5% 23.4%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 9.5% 22.6%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 10.4% 21.8%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 10.7% 25.5%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 9.8% 20.5%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 9.7% 18.9%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 10.1% 22.3%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 9.6% 20.2%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 9.6% 20.1%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 9.6% 18.5%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 9.2% 17.9%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 9.5% 16.6%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 8.9% 14.2%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 8.5% 16.6%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 8.4% 16.6%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 8.0% 14.7%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 7.6% 14.9%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 8.1% 14.6%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 7.3% 10.8%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 6.6% 10.8%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 6.5% 11.5%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 5.8% 11.6%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 5.6% 10.1%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Spain,
ages 15 to 74
Spain,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 12.4% 24.5%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 11.9% 22.5%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 11.8% 23.0%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 11.4% 22.8%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 10.7% 21.2%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 10.5% 20.7%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 10.5% 21.1%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 10.6% 21.3%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 11.2% 21.7%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 11.3% 21.5%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 11.7% 22.5%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 11.6% 23.1%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 11.7% 23.0%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 11.4% 22.3%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 11.5% 22.6%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 11.4% 22.9%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 11.2% 22.3%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 11.2% 22.4%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 11.0% 22.1%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 10.5% 21.2%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 9.9% 21.3%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 9.4% 20.2%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 8.6% 18.5%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 8.7% 18.5%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 8.8% 18.3%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 8.5% 18.1%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 8.3% 17.4%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 8.3% 17.7%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 8.2% 17.3%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 8.0% 18.1%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 8.2% 18.4%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 8.6% 18.6%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 9.3% 20.5%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 10.4% 23.5%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 11.5% 25.0%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 13.8% 29.0%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 16.7% 34.7%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 17.9% 37.9%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 18.2% 39.6%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 18.7% 38.8%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 19.3% 39.6%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 20.0% 41.4%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 20.0% 41.9%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 20.2% 43.0%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 20.5% 44.2%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 20.7% 45.3%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 21.8% 47.1%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 22.7% 48.4%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 23.5% 50.5%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 24.5% 52.5%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 25.3% 53.5%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 25.9% 54.9%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 26.2% 55.7%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 26.2% 55.6%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 26.2% 55.5%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 25.8% 54.9%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 25.2% 54.5%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 24.6% 52.8%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 24.2% 53.6%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 23.8% 51.8%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 23.1% 50.5%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 22.5% 48.7%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 21.7% 47.9%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 21.0% 46.2%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 20.4% 45.7%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 20.1% 45.9%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 19.4% 43.3%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 18.7% 42.7%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 18.2% 40.9%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 17.3% 39.1%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 16.8% 37.5%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 16.6% 37.0%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 16.2% 35.5%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
Sweden,
ages 15 to 74
Sweden,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 6.0% 10.5%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 5.8% 11.1%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 5.5% 10.4%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 5.1% 10.1%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 5.8% 14.6%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 5.7% 13.6%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 5.8% 15.4%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 5.9% 16.2%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 5.8% 16.5%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 5.7% 14.8%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 6.1% 16.5%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 6.2% 17.2%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 6.3% 16.5%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 6.3% 16.1%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 6.6% 17.5%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 7.1% 19.2%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 7.3% 20.1%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 7.4% 20.3%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 7.4% 20.3%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 7.4% 21.2%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 7.3% 21.1%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 7.9% 23.6%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 7.7% 23.2%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 7.6% 22.1%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 7.5% 22.6%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 7.3% 22.4%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 6.9% 20.8%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 6.5% 20.1%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 6.4% 19.8%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 6.1% 18.6%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 6.0% 18.7%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 6.1% 19.5%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 5.9% 18.9%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 6.0% 20.6%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 6.2% 20.1%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 6.7% 20.9%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 7.4% 22.4%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 8.4% 24.9%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 8.6% 26.6%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 8.8% 25.8%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 8.9% 26.1%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 8.7% 25.1%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 8.5% 24.3%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 8.1% 23.3%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 7.9% 22.8%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 7.8% 22.8%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 7.6% 22.4%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 7.8% 22.7%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 7.7% 22.6%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 7.9% 23.1%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 8.1% 24.2%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 8.2% 24.3%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 8.1% 24.2%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 8.0% 23.6%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 8.0% 23.2%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 8.0% 22.7%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 8.1% 23.3%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 8.0% 23.5%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 7.8% 22.0%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 7.8% 22.5%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 7.7% 21.3%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 7.6% 21.0%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 7.2% 19.8%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 7.1% 18.9%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 7.2% 19.6%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 6.8% 18.6%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 6.9% 18.5%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 6.9% 18.4%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 6.7% 18.0%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 6.7% 17.5%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 6.8% 18.2%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 6.5% 17.0%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 6.2% 15.9%

Pew Research Center

European Union,
ages 15 to 74
European Union,
ages 15 to 24
United Kingdom,
ages 15 to 74
United Kingdom,
ages 15 to 24
Q1, 2000 9.2% 17.9% 5.7% 12.5%
Q2, 2000 9.0% 17.7% 5.4% 12.2%
Q3, 2000 8.9% 17.5% 5.3% 12.0%
Q4, 2000 8.8% 17.3% 5.1% 11.9%
Q1, 2001 8.7% 17.2% 5.0% 11.6%
Q2, 2001 8.7% 17.3% 4.9% 11.3%
Q3, 2001 8.7% 17.6% 5.0% 11.8%
Q4, 2001 8.9% 17.9% 5.1% 12.1%
Q1, 2002 8.9% 17.9% 5.1% 11.9%
Q2, 2002 9.0% 17.9% 5.2% 11.8%
Q3, 2002 9.1% 18.2% 5.2% 12.0%
Q4, 2002 9.1% 18.3% 5.1% 12.2%
Q1, 2003 9.1% 18.5% 5.1% 12.4%
Q2, 2003 9.2% 18.7% 4.9% 12.3%
Q3, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 5.0% 12.2%
Q4, 2003 9.2% 18.8% 4.8% 11.6%
Q1, 2004 9.3% 19.2% 4.7% 11.6%
Q2, 2004 9.3% 19.3% 4.7% 11.7%
Q3, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 4.6% 12.2%
Q4, 2004 9.2% 19.1% 4.7% 12.4%
Q1, 2005 9.1% 19.1% 4.7% 12.2%
Q2, 2005 9.1% 19.2% 4.7% 12.5%
Q3, 2005 8.9% 18.9% 4.7% 12.8%
Q4, 2005 8.8% 18.7% 5.1% 13.5%
Q1, 2006 8.6% 18.3% 5.2% 13.4%
Q2, 2006 8.3% 17.9% 5.4% 14.0%
Q3, 2006 8.1% 17.4% 5.4% 14.2%
Q4, 2006 7.9% 17.0% 5.4% 14.0%
Q1, 2007 7.5% 16.4% 5.5% 14.5%
Q2, 2007 7.2% 16.0% 5.3% 14.5%
Q3, 2007 7.1% 15.7% 5.2% 14.3%
Q4, 2007 6.9% 15.2% 5.1% 13.7%
Q1, 2008 6.8% 15.2% 5.1% 13.7%
Q2, 2008 6.9% 15.6% 5.3% 14.3%
Q3, 2008 7.0% 16.1% 5.8% 15.4%
Q4, 2008 7.4% 17.1% 6.3% 16.5%
Q1, 2009 8.3% 18.9% 7.0% 18.0%
Q2, 2009 8.9% 20.1% 7.7% 19.3%
Q3, 2009 9.2% 21.0% 7.8% 19.7%
Q4, 2009 9.4% 21.1% 7.7% 19.5%
Q1, 2010 9.7% 21.4% 7.9% 20.3%
Q2, 2010 9.7% 21.5% 7.8% 19.7%
Q3, 2010 9.6% 21.2% 7.7% 19.1%
Q4, 2010 9.6% 21.3% 7.8% 20.6%
Q1, 2011 9.5% 21.3% 7.7% 20.3%
Q2, 2011 9.5% 21.5% 7.9% 20.7%
Q3, 2011 9.7% 21.9% 8.2% 21.8%
Q4, 2011 10.0% 22.4% 8.4% 22.2%
Q1, 2012 10.2% 22.9% 8.2% 22.2%
Q2, 2012 10.4% 23.2% 8.0% 21.5%
Q3, 2012 10.6% 23.3% 7.8% 20.5%
Q4, 2012 10.8% 23.8% 7.8% 20.9%
Q1, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 7.8% 20.7%
Q2, 2013 11.0% 23.9% 7.7% 21.5%
Q3, 2013 10.9% 23.7% 7.5% 20.7%
Q4, 2013 10.7% 23.5% 7.1% 19.9%
Q1, 2014 10.6% 23.2% 6.7% 18.8%
Q2, 2014 10.3% 22.3% 6.3% 16.7%
Q3, 2014 10.1% 21.8% 6.0% 16.3%
Q4, 2014 10.0% 21.4% 5.7% 16.3%
Q1, 2015 9.8% 21.0% 5.5% 15.6%
Q2, 2015 9.6% 20.6% 5.5% 15.4%
Q3, 2015 9.3% 20.0% 5.3% 14.3%
Q4, 2015 9.0% 19.6% 5.0% 13.4%
Q1, 2016 8.8% 19.2% 5.0% 13.3%
Q2, 2016 8.7% 18.9% 4.9% 13.3%
Q3, 2016 8.5% 18.6% 4.8% 13.1%
Q4, 2016 8.2% 18.0% 4.7% 12.4%
Q1, 2017 8.0% 17.3% 4.5% 12.2%
Q2, 2017 7.7% 17.1% 4.4% 12.0%
Q3, 2017 7.5% 16.7% 4.3% 12.1%
Q4, 2017 7.3% 16.2% 4.3% 12.1%
Q1, 2018 7.1% 15.6% 4.2% 11.7%

Pew Research Center

As Europe’s overall unemployment rate has returned to pre-recession levels, public optimism about the economy has increased in some of the bloc’s countries. In fall 2017, for example, 85% of Germans said the economic situation in their country was very or somewhat good. That was up from 2007, when 63% said the same, according to Pew Research Center surveys.

But public opinion about the economy has not improved everywhere. In Spain, where unemployment remains high despite dropping in recent years, just 28% of adults gave the economy a positive grade in fall 2017, down from 65% in 2007. In the United Kingdom, 41% said that their national economy was good, down from 69% in 2007, even though the British unemployment rate is relatively low and has steadily decreased since the financial crisis ended.

The Greek public, meanwhile, continued to give its country’s economy an extremely low rating in a spring 2017 survey, reflecting Greece’s persistently high unemployment rate. Almost all Greeks (98%) said the country’s economic situation was somewhat or very bad in 2017, unchanged from the share in 2012 that said the same (the first time the question was asked).

Unemployment rates vary widely across EU-28 countries

Unemployment varies widely by country in the EU, in many cases reflecting national differences in economic performance. In the first quarter of 2018, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary and Poland had the lowest unemployment rates, while Greece, Spain, Italy, Croatia and Cyprus had the highest.

Nearly all EU countries’ unemployment rates declined from the first quarter of 2013 – the end of Europe’s second recession – to the first quarter of 2018, but the degree of change differed starkly between nations. The countries with the largest percentage-point decreases include Spain (-10.0 percentage points), Portugal (-9.7) and Ireland (-8.7), while unemployment decreased far more modestly in Austria (-0.3 points), Luxembourg (-0.3), Italy (-0.8) and France (-1.1). Only Finland (+0.1) saw an increase during this time.

Europe’s economic downturns also affected countries’ unemployment at different times. Germany’s unemployment rate peaked at 11.2% before the crisis, in the second and third quarters of 2005, and then declined from 2008 to 2018. In Greece, unemployment climbed to 27.7% in the second and third quarter of 2013, the highest unemployment rate an EU country has seen over the past two decades. By contrast, in the UK, unemployment never reached double digits, peaking at 8.4% in the fourth quarter of 2011.

Youth unemployment in the EU has also dropped to pre-recession levels. At the beginning of 2018, the unemployment rate among workers ages 15 to 24 (15.6%) was the same as at the start of the recession in the second quarter of 2008.

However, youth unemployment remains high in parts of Europe. As of the first quarter of 2018, at least a quarter of workers ages 15 to 24 were unemployed in Greece (43.8%), Spain (35.5%), Italy (32.5%) and Croatia (23.6%). Germany (6.3%), the Czech Republic (6.9%) and the Netherlands (7.2%) had the EU’s lowest youth unemployment rates.

Topics: Global Migration and Demography, Business and Labor, Europe, Work and Employment

  1. Photo of Antonio Flores

    is a research assistant focusing on Hispanic research at Pew Research Center.

  2. Photo of Jens Manuel Krogstad

    is a senior writer/editor focusing on Hispanics, immigration and demographics at Pew Research Center.