Numbers, Facts and Trends Shaping Your World

The American Middle Class Is Losing Ground

Appendix A: References

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Anderson, Monica. 2015. “A Rising Share of the U.S. Black Population Is Foreign Born: 9 Percent Are Immigrants; and While Most Are from the Caribbean, Africans Drive Recent Growth.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, April.

Autor, David. 2010. “The Polarization of Job Opportunities in the U.S. Labor Market.” Washington, D.C.: The Center for American Progress and The Hamilton Project, April.

Burkhauser, Richard V., Amy Crews Cutts, Mary C. Daly and Stephen P. Jenkins. 1999. “Testing the Significance of Income Distribution Changes over the 1980s Business Cycle: A Cross-National Comparison.” Journal of Applied Econometrics, Vol. 14, No. 3.

Burkhauser, Richard V., Jeff Larrimore and Kosali I. Simon. 2011. “A ‘Second Opinion’ on the Economic Health of the American Middle Class.” Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, June.

Burtless, Gary. 2015. “Are Middle Class Incomes Shrinking? Census Statistics Tell a Different Story than National Income Statistics.” Brookings Institution, September.

Burtless, Gary. 2015. “Trends in Well-Being of the Aged and Their Prospects Through 2030.” Forum for Health Economics and Policy, Vol. 18, No. 2.

Cingano, Federico. 2014. “Trends in Income Inequality and its Impact on Economic Growth.” Paris, France: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, December.

Council of Economic Advisers. 2015. Economic Report of the President. February.

Dabla-Norris, Era, Kalpana Kochhar, Nujin Suphaphiphat, Frantisek Ricka and Evridiki Tsounta. 2015. “Causes and Consequences of Income Inequality: A Global Perspective.” Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, June.

Daly, Mary C., and Leila Bengali. 2014. “Is It Still Worth Going to College?” Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Economic Letter, May 5.

Debels, Annelies and Leen Vandecasteele. 2008. “The Time Lag in Annual Household-based Income Measures: Assessing and Correcting the Bias.” Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 54, No. 1.

Deitz, Richard and James Orr. 2006. “A Leaner, More Skilled U.S. Manufacturing Workforce.” Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Vol. 12, No. 2.

DeNavas-Walt, Carmen and Bernadette D. Proctor. 2015. “Income and Poverty in the United States: 2014” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, September.

Dimitri, Carolyn, Anne Effland and Neilson Conklin. 2005. “The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agriculture and Farm Policy.” United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Economic Information Bulletin, No. 3, June.

Engelhardt, Gary V., and Jonathan Gruber. 2004. “Social Security and the Evolution of Elderly Poverty.” Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, May.

Feldstein, Martin. 2015. “Why the US Middle Class Has Been Doing Better Than the Data Suggests.” World Economic Forum, July.

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Fry, Richard. 2010. “The Reversal of the College Marriage Gap.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, October.

Fry, Richard. 2013. “The Growing Economic Clout of the College Educated.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, September.

Fry, Richard and D’Vera Cohn. 2010. “Women, Men and the New Economics of Marriage.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, January.

Fry, Richard and Kim Parker. 2012. “Record Shares of Young Adults Have Finished Both High School and College.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, November.

Fry, Richard, D’Vera Cohn, Gretchen Livingston and Paul Taylor. 2011. “The Rising Age Gap in Economic Well-Being.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, November.

Garner, Thesia I., Javier Ruiz-Castillo and Mercedes Sastre. 2003. “ The Influence of Demographics and Household-Specific Price Indices on Consumption-Based Inequality and Welfare: A Comparison of Spain and the United States.” Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 70, No. 1.

Gonzalez-Barrera, Ana. 2015. “More Mexicans Leaving Than Coming to the U.S.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, November.

Gordon, Robert J. 2014. “The Demise of U.S. Economic Growth: Restatement, Rebuttal, and Reflections.” Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, February.

Hout, Michael. 2007. “How Class Works in Popular Conception: Most Americans Identify with the Class Their Income, Occupation, and Education Implies for Them.” Berkeley, CA: Survey Research Center, February.

Johnson, David S., Timothy M. Smeeding and Barbara Boyle Torrey. 2005. “Economic Inequality Through the Prisms of Income and Consumption.” Monthly Labor Review, April.

Jones, John I. 2009. “What Do OES Data Have to Say About Increasing Wage Inequality?Monthly Labor Review, June.

Kochhar, Rakesh, Richard Fry and Paul Taylor. 2011. “Wealth Gaps Rise to Record Highs Between Whites, Blacks and Hispanics.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, July.

Krueger, Alan B. 2012. “The Rise and Consequences of Inequality in the United States.” Council of Economic Advisers, Speeches and Testimony. Speech given to Center for American Progress, Washington, D.C., January 12.

Meyer, Bruce D., and James X. Sullivan. 2009. “Consumption and Income Inequality in the U.S.: 1960-2008.” Paper presented at IZA/OECD workshop, Paris, February 8-9.

Ostry, Jonathan D., Andrew Berg and Charalambos G. Tsangarides. 2014. “Redistribution, Inequality, and Growth.” Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, February.

Pew Research Center. 2008. “Inside the Middle Class: Bad Times Hit the Good Life.” Washington, D.C.: April.

Pew Research Center. 2012. “The Lost Decade of the Middle Class.” Washington, D.C.: August.

Pew Research Center. 2013. “On Pay Gap, Millennial Women Near Parity – For Now.” Washington, D.C.: December.

Savage, Mike, Fiona Devine, Niall Cunningham, Mark Taylor, Yaojun Li, Johs. Hjellbrekke, Brigitte Le Roux, Sam Friedman and Andrew Miles. 2013. “A New Model of Social Class: Findings from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey Experiment.” Sociology, April.

Short, Kathleen, Thesia Garner, David Johnson and Patricia Doyle. 1999. “Experimental Poverty Measures, 1990 to 1997.” Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, June.

Social Security Administration. 2014. “Income of the Population 55 or Older, 2012.” Washington, DC: April.

Summers, Lawrence H. 2014. “U.S. Economic Prospects: Secular Stagnation, Hysteresis, and the Zero Lower Bound.” Business Economics, Vol. 49, No. 2.

Summers, Lawrence H., and Ed Balls. 2015. “Report of the Commission on Inclusive Prosperity.” Washington, D.C.: Center for American Progress, January.

Wolff, Edward N., Ajit Zacharias and Thomas Masterson. 2012. “Trends in American Living Standards and Inequality, 1959-2007.” Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 58, No. 2.

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