In addition to government actions, there also was a dramatic increase in Europe in some measures of social hostility to religion.
When compared with other wealthy nations, the U.S. is unique in that a large share of its population prays every day.
The global Muslim population is more concentrated in Islam’s main population centers than the global Christian population is for Christianity.
Reports of anti-Semitic incidents in France rose dramatically in 2018. Yet most French adults do not believe negative Jewish stereotypes and are accepting of Jews.
About half of black Muslims are converts to Islam, a relatively high conversion level. Black Muslims, like black Americans overall, have high levels of religious commitment.
Central and Eastern Europeans of different ages are about equally likely to say that Christianity, birthplace and ancestry are important to national identity.
In the EU, Central and Eastern Europeans differ from Western Europeans in their views on certain issues, including religious minorities and gay marriage.
Research has shown that men in the United States are generally less religious than women. And while this pattern holds true among black Americans, black men are still a highly religious group.
This new analysis creates a typology that cuts across denominations, sorting Americans into seven groups, or “clusters,” based on their religious practices and values, their views about religion in general, and the sources of meaning and fulfillment in their lives. Rich Morin, a senior editor at the Center, explains how the study was put together, and discusses the role of cluster analysis in creating the typology.
Black Millennials are more likely than nonblack Millennials, for example, to say they pray at least daily and attend religious services at least weekly.