Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder. This survey and related research on religion and spirituality in the United States was funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts with support from the Lilly Endowment Inc., Templeton Religion Trust, The Arthur Vining Davis Foundations and the M.J. Murdock Charitable Trust.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary Researcher

Becka A. Alper, Senior Researcher               

Research Team

Alan Cooperman, Director, Religion Research             
Gregory A. Smith, Associate Director, Religion Research
Besheer Mohamed, Senior Researcher
Michael Rotolo, Research Associate     
Patricia Tevington, Research Associate
Justin Nortey, Research Analyst      
Asta Kallo, Research Assistant

Methods Team         

Andrew Mercer, Senior Research Methodologist
Dorene Asare-Marfo, Panel Manager          
Dana Popky, Associate Panel Manager
Anna Brown, Research Methodologist
Arnold Lau, Research Methodologist                       

Editorial and Graphic Design

Dalia Fahmy, Senior Writer/Editor
Rebecca Leppert, Copy Editor
Bill Webster, Senior Information Graphics Designer

Communications and Web Publishing

Achsah Callahan, Communications Manager
Reem Nadeem, Digital Producer    
Anna Schiller, Associate Director, Communications
Stacy Rosenberg, Director, Digital Strategy

In addition, Pew Research Center is grateful to a panel of expert advisers who provided valuable advice on this project: Nancy T. Ammerman, professor emerita of sociology of religion at Boston University; Ryan Cragun, professor of sociology at The University of Tampa; Penny Edgell, professor of sociology at the University of Minnesota; Jacqui Frost, assistant professor of sociology at Purdue University; John C. Green, director emeritus of The Ray C. Bliss Institute of Applied Politics and distinguished professor emeritus of political science at The University of Akron; Jaime Kucinskas, chair and associate professor of sociology at Hamilton College; and Brian Steensland, department chair and professor of sociology at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI).