This report was produced by Pew Research Center as part of the Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures project, which analyzes religious change and its impact on societies around the world. Funding for the Global Religious Futures project comes from The Pew Charitable Trusts and the John Templeton Foundation.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary Researcher

Yunping Tong, Research Associate   

Research Team                    

Conrad Hackett, Associate Director of Research and Senior Demographer
Stephanie Kramer, Senior Researcher    
Anne Fengyan Shi, Senior Researcher
Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research

Editorial and Graphic Design

Dalia Fahmy, Senior Writer and Editor                   
Michael Lipka, Editorial Manager                           
Rebecca Leppert, Editorial Assistant          
Bill Webster, Senior Information Graphics Designer

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Reem Nadeem, Associate Digital Producer            
Anna Schiller, Senior Communications Manager

Others at Pew Research Center who provided guidance include Neha Sahgal, associate director of research; Jonathan Evans, research associate; and Andrew Mercer, senior research methodologist. In addition, former research associate Joey Marshall, and former interns Isaac Lamoreaux and Omkar Joshi contributed to this report.

The Center also received valuable advice on this report from several eminent scholars, including Fengqing Chao, research scientist at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology; Monica Das Gupta, research professor of sociology at the University of Maryland and the Maryland Population Research Center; Sriya Iyer, professor of economics at Saint Catharine’s College, University of Cambridge; Prabhat Jha, professor of global health and epidemiology at University of Toronto; Ravinder Kaur, professor of sociology and social anthropology at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi; Devesh Kapur, Starr Foundation Professor of South Asian Studies at Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, Purushottam M. Kulkarni, retired professor of population studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University; and Tom Pullum, Senior Advisor at the Demographic and Health Surveys program.

While the analysis for this report was guided by our consultations with these advisers, Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data.