An estimated 990,000 Hispanics with origins from Spain – that is, those who are immigrants from or who trace their family ancestry to Spain – resided in the United States in 2021, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey. Spaniards in this statistical profile are people who self-identified as Hispanics with origins from Spain.

Spaniards are the ninth-largest population of Hispanic origin living in the United States, accounting for 1% of the U.S. Hispanic population in 2021. From 2010 to 2021, the population with origins from Spain increased 40%, growing from 710,000 to 990,000. At the same time, the foreign-born population with origins from Spain living in the U.S. grew by 33%, from 90,000 in 2010 to 120,000 in 2021.

For a downloadable spreadsheet of these findings, see “U.S. Hispanic population data (detailed tables).”

U.S. population with origins from Spain, 2000-2021
U.S. Spanish population
YearTotalU.S. bornForeign born

Note: Figures greater than 1 million are rounded to the nearest 100,000; other figures greater than 100,000 are rounded to the nearest 10,000; figures that are less than or equal to 100,000 and greater than 25,000 are rounded to the nearest 5,000.

Source: Pew Research Center tabulations of the 2010 and 2021 American Community Surveys (1% IPUMS).


The following key facts compare demographic and economic characteristics of the population of Hispanics with origins from Spain in the U.S. with the characteristics of all U.S. Hispanics and the U.S. population overall. They are based on Pew Research Center tabulations of the 2021 American Community Survey.

Immigration status

  • Among Hispanics in the U.S., 32% are foreign born, compared with 12% of U.S. Spaniards.
  • 57% of foreign-born Spaniards have been in the U.S. for over 20 years, and 57% of foreign-born Spaniards are U.S. citizens.

Educational attainment

  • 20% of U.S. Hispanics ages 25 and older have obtained at least a bachelor’s degree, compared with 40% of Spaniards.
  • Among Spaniards ages 25 and older, the U.S. born are less likely than the foreign born to have a bachelor’s degree or higher (38% vs. 50%).


  • Among U.S. Hispanics, the median annual personal earnings for those ages 16 and older was $30,000, compared with $42,000 for Spaniards.
  • Looking at full-time, year-round workers, U.S. Hispanics earned less than Spaniards ($40,000 vs. $59,000).

Poverty status

  • The share of U.S. Hispanics overall who live in poverty (18%) is greater than the share among Spaniards (13%).
  • 13% of U.S.-born Spaniards live in poverty, as do 11% of foreign-born Spaniards.


  • The rate of homeownership among U.S. Hispanic households overall (51%) is lower than the rate for Spanish-origin households (63%).
  • Among U.S. households headed by Hispanics with origins from Spain, the homeownership rate is about the same for households headed by either a U.S.-born or foreign-born household head (63% vs. 65%).

Top states of residence

  • The Hispanic population with origins from Spain is concentrated in California (18%), Texas (11%), New Mexico (10%), Florida (9%) and New York (6%).


  • The median age of U.S. Hispanics  (29.5) is lower than that of Spaniards (34.2) and the U.S. population (37.8).

Marital status

  • U.S. Hispanics ages 18 and older are about as likely to be married (46%) as Spaniards (47%).
  • Among Spaniards ages 18 and older, those who are foreign born are more likely to be married than the U.S. born (63% vs. 44%).


  • 6% of U.S. Hispanic females ages 15 to 44 gave birth in the 12 months prior to the July 2021 American Community Survey. That was higher than the rate for females with origins from Spain (4%).


  • 72% of U.S. Hispanics ages 5 and older speak only English at home or speak English at least “very well,” compared with 95% of Spaniards.
  • Meanwhile, 67% of Hispanic adults overall are English proficient, as are 94% of Hispanic adults with origins in Spain.

Note: This is an update of a fact sheet originally published in September 2019, which former Research Analyst Antonio Flores contributed to and co-wrote.


Pew Research Center’s fact sheets on U.S. Latinos and the accompanying blog post examine the Latino population of the United States overall and by its 17 largest origin groups – Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Salvadorans, Dominicans, Cubans, Guatemalans, Colombians, Hondurans, Spaniards, Ecuadorians, Peruvians, Venezuelans, Nicaraguans, Argentines, Panamanians, Chileans and Costa Ricans. These sheets provide detailed geographic, demographic and economic characteristics for all Latinos and for each Latino origin group. They are based on the Center’s tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2010 and 2021 American Community Survey (ACS) and the 2000 U.S. decennial census.

The ACS is the largest household survey in the United States, with a sample of more than 3 million addresses. It covers the topics previously covered in the long form of the decennial census. The ACS is designed to provide estimates of the size and characteristics of the resident population, which includes persons living in households and group quarters. For more about the ACS, including the sampling strategy and associated error, see the 2010 or 2021 American Community Survey’s Accuracy of the Data document provided by the Census Bureau.

The specific data sources for these fact sheets are the 1% samples of the 2010 and 2021 ACS Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) provided by the University of Minnesota and the 5% sample of the 2000 decennial census. IPUMS assigns uniform codes, to the extent possible, to data collected by the decennial census and the ACS from 1850 to 2021. For more information about IPUMS, including variable definition and sampling error, please visit the “IPUMS Documentation and User Guide.”

Due to differences in the way in which IPUMS and Census Bureau adjust income data and assign poverty status, data provided on these topics might differ from data that are provided by the Census Bureau.

For the purposes of these fact sheets, the foreign born include those persons who identified as naturalized citizens or noncitizens and are living in the 50 states or the District of Columbia. Persons born in Puerto Rico and other outlying territories of the U.S. and who are now living in the 50 states or D.C. are included in the U.S.-born population.