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Methodology: 2023 focus groups of Asian Americans


Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder. The Center’s Asian American portfolio was funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts, with generous support from The Asian American Foundation; Chan Zuckerberg Initiative DAF, an advised fund of the Silicon Valley Community Foundation; the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; the Henry Luce Foundation; the Doris Duke Foundation; The Wallace H. Coulter Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Long Family Foundation; Lu-Hebert Fund; Gee Family Foundation; Joseph Cotchett; the Julian Abdey and Sabrina Moyle Charitable Fund; and Nanci Nishimura.

We would also like to thank the Leaders Forum for its thought leadership and valuable assistance in helping make this survey possible.

The strategic communications campaign used to promote the research was made possible with generous support from the Doris Duke Foundation.

This data essay was written by Neil G. Ruiz, head of new research initiatives, and Ziyao Tian, research associate.

The essay, the accompanying short film and its corresponding digital features were produced by Shannon Greenwood, digital production manager. The communications and outreach strategy for the data essay, as well as editorial advice on all accompanying research products, was provided by Hannah Klein, senior communications manager, with help from Tanya Arditi, senior communications manager. Creative direction and editorial advice for the short film was provided by Kim Arias, video lead.

Many individuals contributed to this study’s design, data collection and methodology. Ruiz and Research Associate Luis Noe-Bustamante led the development of the focus groups. Ruiz, Tian, Noe-Bustamante and Research Assistant Carolyne Im facilitated the fielding of the focus groups. The authors are grateful to former interns Dan Jacobi and Sophie Yap for coding the transcripts and to temporary Research Associate Abby Budiman, former research interns Rachel Chen and Joanne Hanner, Im, and Research Assistant Mohamad Moslimani for helping with research analysis. Pew Research Center is also grateful to Shawnna Mullenax and André Sanabia Johnston from PSB Insights and to Grace Chiu and Patrick Cahill from GC Global for their many contributions to this project.

The 2022-23 Asian American survey and the subsequent reports from it would not be possible without Ashley Amaya, associate director of survey methods, who designed the survey’s methodology, managed the long fielding period with Westat and helped with the questionnaire development. The entire survey project was expertly managed by Noe-Bustamante. Noe-Bustamante also managed a team that carried out the survey’s data processing and included Budiman, Im, Research Methodologist Arnold Lau and former Research Assistant Lauren Mora.

Ruiz and former Research Associate Sunny Shao led the development of the survey questionnaire with help from Amaya, Research Associate Khadijah Edwards, Moslimani, Mora and Noe-Bustamante. Senior Demographer Jeffrey Passel provided advice on the demographic analysis. Pew Research Center is also grateful to Westat’s Mike Brick, Ismael Flores Cervantes, Eric Jodts and Hanna Popick for their many contributions to this project.

Mark Hugo Lopez, director of race and ethnicity research, provided editorial guidance over the project, including the survey questionnaire, essay and related products. Sahana Mukherjee, associate director of race and ethnicity research, and Senior Writer Jens Manuel Krogstad provided editorial guidance. The essay was number-checked by Im. Senior Copy Editor David Kent copy edited the essay.

The charts were designed by Tian and Im, with help from Information Graphics Designer John Carlo Mandapat and Associate Director of Digital Production Peter Bell. Illustrations were designed by Jing Li, freelance illustrator.

Pew Research Center is grateful to a panel of expert advisers who provided advice at all stages of this project’s development: Janelle Wong, Professor of American Studies and Asian American Studies at the University of Maryland; Yến Lê Espiritu, Distinguished Professor of Ethnic Studies at University of California, San Diego; Devesh Kapur, Starr Foundation Professor of South Asian Studies at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies; Anthony Christian Ocampo, Professor of Sociology at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; Karthick Ramakrishnan, Professor of Public Policy at the University of California, Riverside; and Yang Sao Xiong, Assistant Professor at College of Social Sciences at California State University, Fresno.

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