Men and women in the United States generally agree on many of the personal qualities and competencies they see as essential for political and business leaders to have. But there are notable differences in the importance they ascribe to some of those qualities, according to a new Pew Research Center survey.
Large majorities of men and women alike say it’s essential that politicians in high offices be honest and ethical (91% and 90%, respectively), work well under pressure (79% each), be able to work out compromises (79% and 77%) and stand up for what they believe in (74% and 75%). These are the top four qualities of nine political characteristics tested in the survey, which was conducted online in June and July.
But while three-quarters of women (75%) say it’s essential that political leaders maintain a tone of civility and respect in politics, men are 14 percentage points less likely to say this (61%). And while around seven-in-ten women say it’s essential that politicians in high offices be compassionate and empathetic (72%) and serve as a role model for children (71%), the shares of men who see these qualities as essential are lower (60% and 59%, respectively). Women are also more likely than men to see a willingness to take risks as an essential quality for those in high political offices (50% vs. 40%).
The survey also asked Americans whether they see each of 12 behaviors and competencies as essential for business leaders to have. It again found sizable differences between the views of men and women on certain qualities.
Three years after a record 1.3 million migrants sought asylum in Europe, a majority of people in several European countries say they support taking in refugees who are fleeing violence and war, according to a Pew Research Center survey. However, most people in these countries disapprove of the way the European Union has dealt with the refugee issue.
About three-quarters or more of adults in Spain, the Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom support taking in refugees from countries where people are fleeing violence and war, according to a global survey conducted in the spring of 2018 that included 10 EU countries. Similar shares in Germany and Sweden – which saw large influxes of migrants seeking refugee status in 2015 and 2016 – back taking in refugees.
There is also majority support for taking in refugees in Greece and Italy, which have been main entry points into Europe for migrants in recent years. Notably, people in these countries generally expressed negative views toward refugees following the 2015 migration surge.
People in Poland and Hungary are less likely to support taking in refugees. About half in Poland (49%) voice support, and only about a third (32%) say the same in Hungary, where thousands of migrants sought asylum in 2015. In June, Hungary’s parliament passed legislation that made it a crime to assist asylum seekers and refugees – one reason why the European Parliament recently voted to pursue sanctions against Hungary for not upholding core EU values.
About 2 million migrants have arrived in Europe by crossing the Mediterranean Sea since 2009, and the paths they take to get there have changed over time. So far in 2018, the Morocco-to-Spain corridor has been the most traveled among the three major sea routes used by migrants to reach Europe, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of data from Frontex, Europe’s border and coast guard agency, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
Until 2018, the Morocco-to-Spain route – also known as the western route – had been the least-traveled Mediterranean migration path, with a total of 89,000 migrants arriving along Spain’s coastline since 2009. But between January and August 2018, this route has seen over 28,000 arrivals, more than the central Africa-to-Italy central route (20,000 arrivals) and the Turkey-to-Greece eastern route (20,000 arrivals). One reason for this is that Spain recently allowed rescue ships carrying migrants to dock after other European Union countries had denied them entry.
The ways that social media shape political attitudes and the intricacies of lawmaking in the U.S. Congress were two of the many topics at the American Political Science Association Annual Conference in Boston earlier this month. Here are brief summaries of some highlights from the conference across sessions on those topics, which represent a small portion of the full agenda. Several of these papers relate to Pew Research Center work on congressional rhetoric, news on social media and political discussion on social media. As is true of many academic conferences, some of these results may be preliminary and could later be revised; several of the papers we mention are not yet published in peer-reviewed journals. The full conference program is available here.
On social media, exposure to the other side can increase political polarization. In a paper that was published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in late August, researchers recruited a nonprobability sample of U.S. adults to test whether seeing tweets from those on the other side of the ideological spectrum makes political attitudes more or less polarized. They found that Republicans who hold ideologically conservative views often become even more likely to hold strong views when they follow a bot on Twitter that tweets views that run counter to their own.
Video games are a source of entertainment for many Americans – so much so that there’s even an unofficial holiday to celebrate them. Here are five findings about Americans and video games, compiled from Pew Research Center surveys:
1Overall, 43% of U.S. adults say they often or sometimes play video games on a computer, TV, game console or portable device like a cellphone. But there are substantial differences by age and gender. For example, Americans younger than 50 are twice as likely as those ages 50 and older to say they play games on one of these devices (55% vs. 28%), according to a 2017 Center survey. And men are more likely than women to play. This is particularly the case among young people: 72% of men ages 18 to 29 play video games, compared with 49% of women in the same age range.
A separate survey conducted by the Center earlier this year shows a similar pattern exists when it comes to owning a game console. Around four-in-ten Americans overall (39%) say they own a dedicated video game console – a figure that is largely unchanged since the Center first asked this question in 2009. And while similar shares of men and women own a gaming console, young men are particularly likely to have one: Around two-thirds (68%) of men ages 18 to 29 own a console, compared with 46% of women in the same age range.
In a 2015 Center survey, a third of young men (33%) identified themselves as gamers, nearly four times the share of young women (9%) who said the same.
A Danish law that took effect in August makes it illegal for Muslim women to wear face-covering veils – such as burqas or niqabs – in public. Austria, Belgium and France, as well as parts of Italy and Spain, have enacted similar laws in recent years, contributing to government restrictions on religion in the region.
These laws are largely in line with Western European attitudes on the issue. Most non-Muslim adults in Western Europe favor at least some restrictions on the religious clothing of Muslim women who live in their country, according to a recent Pew Research Center survey of 15 countries in the region.
The prevailing view (a regional median of 50%) is that Muslim women should be allowed to wear religious clothing as long as it does not cover their face. Fewer (regional median of 23%) say Muslim women should not be allowed to wear any religious clothing. And a regional median of 25% take the more permissive view that Muslim women should be allowed to wear any religious clothing they choose.
In the United Kingdom, for example, 53% of non-Muslim adults say Muslim women in the UK should be allowed to wear religious clothing as long as it does not cover their face, while 19% favor restricting all religious clothing. Roughly a quarter (27%) support allowing Muslim women to wear the religious clothing of their choosing.
The recently enacted laws in European countries do not explicitly target Muslim women’s dress. In the case of Denmark, for instance, the statute prohibits face coverings except for “recognizable purposes,” such as cold weather.
The estimated 44 million immigrants in the United States are better educated than ever, due in part to rising levels of schooling in many of the countries they came from and an influx of high-skilled workers to the U.S. in recent years, especially from Asia.
In 2016, 17.2% of immigrants ages 25 and older had a bachelor’s degree and another 12.8% had attained a postgraduate degree, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data. Both shares are up since 1980, when 7.0% held a bachelor’s degree and another 8.7% held a postgraduate degree.
Compared with the U.S.-born population, immigrants are about as likely to hold bachelor’s and postgraduate degrees, though this varies by country of origin. In 2016, 30.0% of immigrants ages 25 and older had a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared with 31.6% of the U.S. born.
The United States has more immigrants than any other country in the world. Today, more than 40 million people living in the U.S. were born in another country, accounting for about one-fifth of the world’s migrants in 2016. The population of immigrants is also very diverse, with just about every country in the world represented among U.S. immigrants.
Pew Research Center regularly publishes statistical portraits of the nation’s foreign-born population, which include historical trends since 1960. Based on these portraits, here are answers to some key questions about the U.S. immigrant population.
How many people in the U.S. are immigrants?
The U.S. foreign-born population reached a record 43.7 million in 2016. Since 1965, when U.S. immigration laws replaced a national quota system, the number of immigrants living in the U.S. has more than quadrupled. Immigrants today account for 13.5% of the U.S. population, nearly triple the share (4.7%) in 1970. However, today’s immigrant share remains below the record 14.8% share in 1890, when 9.2 million immigrants lived in the U.S.
Youth is a defining characteristic of the U.S. Latino population. About six-in-ten Latinos (61%) in the U.S. were 35 or younger in 2016. The number of young Latinos –35 million – increased 20% from a decade earlier, making it one of the largest and fastest-growing youth populations in the country. With a median age of 28, Latinos are also the nation’s youngest major racial or ethnic group. Here are some key facts about them:
1Young Latinos are largely U.S. born. The U.S. born account for 81% of Latinos ages 35 or younger in 2016, compared with 42% of Latinos ages 36 or older. Those born in the U.S. are particularly young: With a median age of 20, many U.S.-born Latinos have not fully entered adulthood.
Populist parties and movements have disrupted the political landscape in Western Europe, from the United Kingdom’s Brexit vote to the rise of a populist governing coalition in Italy. Amid these gains at the ballot box, journalists and other observers have debated whether these parties are redrawing the map of Europe, destroying traditional parties or pulling traditional parties more toward the ideological poles.
To learn more about what traditional and populist party support looks like in Western Europe, explore our new interactive feature below.