Pew Research Center received invaluable advice in developing the questionnaire from Meredith Kleykamp, Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Maryland.

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Kim Parker, Director, Social Trends Research
Juliana Horowitz, Associate Director, Research
Rich Morin, Former Senior Writer/Editor
Ruth Igielnik, Senior Researcher
Amanda Barroso, Writer/Editor
Anthony Cilluffo, Former Research Analyst
Nikki Graf, Research Associate
Anna Brown, Research Associate
Deja Thomas, Research Assistant
Jesse Bennett, Research Assistant
Tanya Arditi, Communications Manager
Nida Asheer, Communications Associate
David Kent, Copy Editor
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of the Pew Research Center methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Nick Bertoni, Nick Hatley and Arnold Lau.