July 29, 2016

Which countries still outlaw apostasy and blasphemy?

Apostasy and blasphemy may seem to many like artifacts of history. But in dozens of countries around the world, laws against apostasy and blasphemy remain on the books and often are enforced.

Last December, for instance, authorities in Sudan charged 25 men for apostasy – the act of abandoning one’s faith — including by converting to another religion. The men face the death penalty for following a different interpretation of Islam than the one sanctioned by the government. And, in Pakistan, police are currently pursuing a Christian accused of sending an allegedly blasphemous poem to a friend. Blasphemy – defined as speech or actions considered to be contemptuous of God or the divine – is a capital crime in Pakistan.

A new Pew Research Center analysis finds that, as of 2014, about a quarter of the world’s countries and territories (26%) had anti-blasphemy laws or policies, and that more than one-in-ten (13%) nations had laws or policies penalizing apostasy. The legal punishments for such transgressions vary from fines to death.

We counted and categorized these laws in 2014 as part of our research for a major report on restrictions on religion around the world. This report, which examines both government restrictions on religion and social hostilities involving religion, relied on 17 widely cited, publicly available sources from groups such as the U.S. State Department, the United Nations, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International and the International Crisis Group.

We found that laws restricting apostasy and blasphemy are most common in the Middle East and North Africa, where 18 of the region’s 20 countries (90%) criminalize blasphemy and 14 (70%) criminalize apostasy. While apostasy laws exist in only two other regions of the world – Asia-Pacific and sub-Saharan Africa – blasphemy laws can be found in all regions, including Europe (in 16% of countries) and the Americas (29%).

Some blasphemy laws have been on the books for decades and have endured in spite of dramatic political and social changes. In Pakistan, for instance, blasphemy statutes have their origins in the country’s colonial past, when British rulers first introduced penalties for insulting any religious beliefs. These laws remained in effect after Pakistan’s independence in 1947 and have since increased in severity.

Pakistan is one of 12 of the 50 countries in the Asia-Pacific region (24%) that had blasphemy laws in 2014. And, during that year, blasphemy laws were enforced in several of those 12 nations. For instance, in Burma (Myanmar), a New Zealander and two Burmese men were convicted of blasphemy after using an advertisement depicting Buddha with headphones to promote a bar. The men were sentenced to two and a half years in prison.

Blasphemy laws are least common in sub-Saharan Africa (four of 48 countries), according to 2014 data. In Europe as well, blasphemy laws are not very common, being found in just seven out of 45 nations (16%).

In the Americas, 10 out of 35 countries (29%) had blasphemy laws, including the Bahamas, where the publication or sale of blasphemous material can be punished with up to two years imprisonment. The U.S. does not have any federal blasphemy laws, but as of 2014, several U.S. states – including Massachusetts and Michigan – still had anti-blasphemy laws on the books. However, the speech and religion clauses of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution would almost certainly prompt a court to ban the enforcement of any such law.

Apostasy laws are less common worldwide – they are found in 25 countries, in only three regions of the world. By far the most countries with anti-apostasy measures were in the Middle East-North Africa region (14 out of 20).

Seven of the 50 countries (14%) in the Asia-Pacific region also had apostasy laws. For instance, in the Maldives, all citizens are required to be Muslim, and those who convert to another faith may lose their citizenship. In sub-Saharan Africa, just four of the 48 countries (8%) have laws prohibiting apostasy. There were no laws against apostasy in any countries in Europe or the Americas in 2014.

Note: This is an updated version of a post originally published on May 28, 2014. 

Topics: Religion and Government, Restrictions on Religion

  1. Photo of Angelina E. Theodorou

    is a research analyst focusing on religion at Pew Research Center.


  1. Anonymous1 year ago

    Are there religions other than Islam that have apostasy laws?

  2. Anonymous1 year ago

    This map shows me the most backward countries on the planet. Before living in any one of them I would probably blow myself up, too.

  3. Anonymous1 year ago

    And don’t forget Canada still has a blasphemous libel law, which is a stupid law that was last used to get a successful charge in Quebec about half a century ago

  4. Tim Furnish1 year ago

    Amazing how you Pew folks publish empirical data showing the vast majority of nations with such laws are Islamic–yet manage never to point out that glaring, but seemingly inconvenient, truth.

  5. Anonymous1 year ago

    The Buddha never claimed to be a god. Shame on Myanmar, for this and many other things. It’s difficult to blaspheme a regular dude.

  6. Thomas H Wing1 year ago

    Europe will have apostasy laws once they(the shariahists) finish conquering Germany, France, and Britain. Initially, it will not be a death penalty, but will be a jizza tax pad to the Islamist state. Is there an epidemic of mental deficiency in Germany. – I think so. So sad.

  7. Anonymous1 year ago

    New Zealand has a blasphemy law. To persecute requires the Solicitor General’s permission. Such permission was given once only about 80 years ago and the jury acquitted the man. It shouldn’t be in the law books but it has no impact at all. People don’t generally criticise religion because it’s not really relevant to society. Religion is as relevant as astrology (although in fairness to astrology the papers still print horoscopes!).

  8. Anonymous1 year ago

    It’s more relevant to highlight countries that actually enforce apostasy and blasphemy laws. A law is meaningless unless it’s actually enforced.

  9. Anonymous1 year ago

    Don’t forget Brazil, where I am from. Laws are not as harsh as elsewhere, but it is illegal to mock religions and religious symbols, especially Christian ones. A transgender person, as an example, is under threat of prosecution for having enacted Jesus crucifixion but with her female body. She may be fined and jailed.

  10. Anonymous1 year ago

    Nothing wrong with blasphemy laws using the excuse of freedom and free speech to be offensive and a public nuisance is wrong and offensive to the freedom of others to a religion. Apostasy laws are against personal free choice and is wrong.

    1. Anonymous1 year ago

      Freedom of speech does not infringe on your freedom of religion. There’s nothing I can say that can physically stop you from practicing your religion. You have the freedom to practice any beliefs but if you believe in something that is wrong or untrue, people have the right to tell you so. Freedom isn’t living in your bubble where everyone shares your opinion. The fear of having your ideas challenged is called intellectual safety.

    2. Anonymous1 year ago

      Who said any of us have a right not to be offended?

    3. Anonymous1 year ago

      If your religion is so fragile that it can’t survive criticism, then you need a new religion, or better yet, no religion at all.

  11. William Secor, Ph.D.2 years ago

    You can publish my E-mail, I am not afraid as you said, we need to get out of the closet, just like the gsays

    These people are ignorant, blindly ignorant they have no higher consciousness (a higher power, as AA would have it), good the word must go out, even if you are an Agnostic and atheist, science can teach us much and poetry and literature and history, philosophy not just science

  12. Jan MESTER2 years ago

    Countries with legislation which criminalizes apostasy (and blasphemy) are in flagrant denial of the Universal declaration of human rights, at the basis of the United Nations organisation. However, these countries are members of the UN. The membership in an organisation shoud require compliance with its fundamental principles. Thus, the UN is no more than a hypocritical club with no ideological value.
    I am cerainly not alone with this opinion, but the world does not seem to care: politicians, media are all silent if not indifferent.

  13. nikoss2 years ago

    i dont care. they do believe, they are not ashamed of what they believe. many ppl say “im religious” and actually mean NOTHING. better be true, at any cost. and muslims are at least the last true non-politicaly corect enslaved people, even with the many many many flaws they have as people.i respect them for that. Btw i dont know what you mean about blasphemy Law, i sure do know that here in GREECE PUBLIC blasphemy MAY be punished (there are some rare but existing cases, with last was in 2011)

  14. Tony2 years ago

    Offending mythology … [doh].

    If god has an issue, let her bring the case to court … IN PERSON

    1. Anonymous1 year ago

      God is not the issue in blasphemy laws, blasphemy is the abuse of persons who believe in God. It is the abuse of a person by attacking and degrading the object of his belief and his freedom of religion.

      1. Anonymous1 year ago

        There is no law protecting you from not being criticized. Blasphemy is not abuse. Blasphemy is saying something counter to religion or god. If I don’t believe in god, I have the right to say that it’s a myth. That’s not an abuse of a believer. You are free to believe in Santa Clause, the Easter Bunny, and Tooth Fairy.

  15. J2 years ago

    interesting… all the countries that still have apostasy laws also all have muslim majorities for their populations.

  16. Kai3 years ago

    In the crimal code of Finland (Chapter 17, Section 10) is term “Breach of sanctuarity of religion” You can get penalty of fine or 6 months in prison.

  17. Jaakko Sivonen3 years ago

    Finland also has a law, that makes blasphemy illegal (Criminal Code, chapter 17, clause 10).

    1. Anonymous1 year ago

      I beg to differ… By allowing blasphemy you are degrading the freedom to religion. Allowing abusive blasphemous publications and utterances to be freely allowed is the legalising the abuse of those with religion and can be used to devalue and oppress them because of their beliefs…

      1. Anonymous1 year ago

        Ideas do not have rights. Calling your religion idiotic does not take away your right to practice it.

  18. Michael3 years ago

    In this sentence, what does “had” mean? “In the Americas, 11 out of 35 countries (31%) had blasphemy laws, including the Bahamas, where the publication or sale of blasphemous material can be punished with up to two years imprisonment.”

    Had at the time of publication? Had in the past, but no longer is applied? Had but was struck down? Can you clarify for me please?

  19. Mike Gale3 years ago

    There are some interesting implications and consequences of these laws and related attempts to control thought.

    1. Much of what I hear from Politicians, News Media and Internet comment is transparently nonsense / partisan / fact free. Rules like this presumably increase the “noise to signal ratio” in these countries making public (and often private) speech more worthless. We could model that to give a world graph of “how much nonsense is spoken”. This could look like a “world map pavement” with each country represented by a tile. The “nonsense lands” could have more sunken surfaces, giving us a valley around the middle of the planet.

    2. In Japan there is a concept of Tatemae and Honne. This encompasses the idea that you do and say certain things in public but the “real you” can be different and only shown in private. It would be interesting to see how these rules impact awareness of “Tatemae and Honne”.

  20. russ savage3 years ago

    In no way do I condone the horrific apostasy and blasphemy laws mentioned in this article. However I do think most people would be very surprised and appalled by the laws that are currently on the books in many American states, not just Massachusetts and Michigan. I am just pointing out that there are a whole lot of bizarre laws ‘still’ on the books here in the USA that need to be deleted. Below are just a couple of examples of laws that are absolutely crazy:
    keyetv.com/news/features/top-sto… P.S. I do not smoke pot but do not believe in penalties of this nature
    And these California laws are just insane: weirdfacts.com/Weird-State-Laws/…
    Makes a person wonder if these laws have been left on the books intentionally…

    1. John Baltierra3 years ago

      It’s misleading to label those as “California laws” when they’re all municipal and county laws. California is easily the most populous state so that list is a nano-fraction of the state. Every state has weird laws–as the main “Weird State Laws” page shows.

  21. Max T. Furr3 years ago

    I note with interest that the theocracy of Iraq has both apostasy and blasphemy laws.

    I see, as well, that there are several states in the U.S. that still have blasphemy laws still on the books. A good study of this can be found here: ffrf.org/faq/state-church/item/2…. Doubtless these laws are not currently enforced, but with the current spike in state-law extremism in the U.S., I would not count them dead.

  22. AH3 years ago

    What is the religious breakdown of countries which ban apostasy? How many forbid renouncing Christianity, how many Islam etc?

    1. John Baltierra3 years ago

      Respectfully, follow the highlighted links in the text; those lead to the expanded information behind their simplified presentation.

  23. Chrissi Clifton3 years ago

    The Meriam Ibrahim case in Sudan – only today did she get a repeive

    ”’Meriam Yehya Ibrahim, a Sudanese mother, doctor and Christian, has been sentenced to flogging and death unless she recants her Christian faith. She was 8 months pregnant when she was arrested and has now given birth to a baby girl. Her baby and her two-year-old son are with her in prison. Please, join the international community in asking Sudan not to execute her for being a Christian.

    Ibrahim is charged with adultery on the grounds that her marriage to a Christian man from South Sudan is considered void under Shari’a law, for which the penalty is flogging. She’s also charged with apostasy, or abandonment of religion, for which the penalty is death.

    Meriam is the daughter of a Christian woman and Muslim man. She was raised Christian after her father left. However, Sudanese law mandates that children born to Muslim fathers are considered Muslim.

    When I read the news about Meriam, I couldn’t sit back and do nothing so I started this petition. People around the world rallied to raise awareness to #bringbackourgirls kidnapped Nigeria, I hope the world will also stand up for Meriam.

    The fact that a woman could be sentenced to death for her religious choice, and to flogging for being married to a man of an allegedly different religion is abhorrent.

    Call upon the Government of Sudan to respect the right to freedom of religion and stop the execution!”’


    1. Chrissi Clifton3 years ago

      p.s. It is not my petition, I am just showing it 😀

  24. novadust3 years ago

    it’s interesting that nearly all those nations have signed n ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which commits its parties to respect freedom of religion n freedom of speech. then again, so have all western nations that outlaw holocaust denial, genocide denial, or hate speech.

  25. Thomas3 years ago

    So Denmark is on there because we have an old law that is never used.

    The country behind the Muhammad drawings, that took a stand for free speech, while a lot of countries cowered.

    Go figure.

    1. Doug Bath3 years ago

      USA has old laws on the books as well. it seems a double standard to me.

  26. Doug Bath3 years ago

    You are missing the United States of America.

    Chapter 272 of the Massachusetts General Laws, Section 36: Whoever willfully blasphemes the holy name of God by denying, cursing or contumeliously reproaching God, His creation, government or final judging of the world, or by cursing or contumeliously reproaching Jesus Christ or the Holy Ghost, or by cursing or contumeliously reproaching or exposing to contempt and ridicule, the holy word of God contained in the holy scriptures shall be punished by imprisonment in jail for not more than one year or by a fine of not more than three hundred dollars, and may also be bound to good behavior.


    1. novadust3 years ago

      apparently u missed paragraph saying ‘The U.S. does not have any federal blasphemy laws, but as of 2012, several U.S. states – including Massachusetts and Michigan – still had anti-blasphemy laws on the books. However, the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution would almost certainly prevent the enforcement of any such law.’

      1. Doug Bath3 years ago

        I read the caption of the figure which says “some level of government”. I assumed the states of Michigan and Massachusetts count as some level of government.

    2. Emily3 years ago

      Oh my goodness, that is absolutely ridiculous. I suppose I’m not going to venture into Massachusetts any time soon considering I’m atheist and don’t fancy spending a year in jail for not believing in yet another mythological deity (just the way I view it, no offense intended).

  27. PeterPoland3 years ago

    I’m suprised, that Germany is here…Does it concern to whole country or choosen lands?

    1. Jess3 years ago

      It is federal law, i.e. it concerns the whole country. But it is slightly different from the laws in other countries – and has a very different origin. The paragraph is called “Defamation of religious denominations, religious societies and World view associations” and was set up mainly in order to protect (religious) minorities from being attacked (obviously with the – at that time – recent prosecution of Jews in mind).

  28. John Smith3 years ago

    Blasphemy: The epitome of a victimless crime.

  29. C Kirk Osterland3 years ago

    This is a disturbing report.Having faith is strengthening and comforting to most humans.But,enforcing a particular religion on a population and criminalizing any infringement on its perceived “laws” is an act of serious intolerance.It illustrates why greed (the West) and intolerant religions(e.g.Islam) will remain as the world’s major causes of the never ending wars and strife.

  30. Paula3 years ago

    I returned from Fiji a couple of months back and learned that cursing in public could lead to arrest if anyone within hearing was offended.

  31. Bashy Quraihsy3 years ago

    Dear Angelina Theodorou
    I read with great interest PEW’s new survey regarding Apostasy and blasphemy in the world.

    While such surveys do help to understand the situation and trends in various parts of the world, your extra ordinary focus on such issues in the Muslim countries and especially Pakistan leaves a lot to be desired.

    First, dry data without proper explanations perpetuates Islamophobia, which is already very prevalent in the west. For example, it would have helped to point out that Blasphemy cases in Pakistan are often personal vendettas, political and financial motivated, like the case in Joseph Colony in Lahore. Besides, no one in Pakistan has been officially put to death because of Apostasy and blasphemy.
    Secondly, in the Muslim countries, people complain that such western surveys are done as another effort to demonize Islam and Muslims because nothing good is ever surveyed about them.
    So, please do collect such data and inform the public as to what is happening but make it more nuanced and balanced for people to understand – but not accept – the reasons that such horrible trends exist. Most Muslims would like to live in peace, harmony and without violence, without being demonized constantly. .

    Kind regards
    Bashy Quraishy

    1. Angelina Theodorou3 years ago

      Bahsy, thanks for your comment. Our research looked at 198 countries and territories around the world – these countries vary in ethnic diversity, religious makeup and form of government, and our study does not attempt to adjust for such differences. All countries are treated equally in our analysis, and we included a variety of examples in the above post to exhibit the diverse presence and enforcement of blasphemy and apostasy laws around the world. As you can see in the map of blasphemy laws around the world, these laws are found in all of the world’s regions. This research is based on data found in these 18 sources ( pewforum.org/2014/01/14/appendix… ), that is categorized and coded – not survey data. This analysis only takes into account government laws, policies, and actions – not social hostilities related to these laws/policies – for information on social hostilities involving religion refer to our annual report ( pewforum.org/2014/01/14/religiou… ).

      1. Bashy Quraihsy3 years ago

        Thank you very much for your kind and informative response, Angelina.
        I would certainly look at the link, you have provided for social hostilities involving religion.

        I hope that PEW continues to do the admirable job, it does. I was just pointing out the feelings of people, my organization works with.

        Kind regards


    2. B. Hert3 years ago

      So which western countries outlaw apostasy? None that I can think of. Which primarily Muslim countries outlaw apostasy? Nearly all of them–right? Why cry about the truth being revealed–unless you are just trying to control PR for your belief system–in which case, why should we listen to you?

      1. Doug Bath3 years ago

        it’s the elephant in the room and we must not say anything about it for PC reasons and to avoid offending anyone. please switch your brain off. thank you.

  32. Pat C3 years ago

    And there you have it: a map of all the most screwed up places on the planet today.

    1. Doug Bath3 years ago

      USA has blasphemy laws at the state level.

  33. oldsalt3 years ago

    Social customs need to be tallied, too. I know a Moroccan woman, now a Christian and married to a Christian, who cannot even visit Morocco for fear of being killed. The same is true in some other countries also.

  34. TeapartyImmigration Coalition3 years ago

    It is interesting to note that not one word about the fact that it is Islamic countries that have and enforce these laws. While there may be some archaic legal language extant in Europe and elsewhere, it is in the Islamic countries that one could be put to death for either converting or causing to convert one to another religion.
    We are not making a comment about the religion. We are making a comment about the laws of that religion and its consequent effect upon speech and personal liberty.
    It is important to our organization because of the influx of thousands of muslims across our southern border as illegal aliens. In some sectors, it is estimated that upwards of 90% of the illegals coming across are OTMS (Other than Mexican).
    In as much as there are roughly 2200 mosques in America and the introduction of Sharia law in places like Minneapolis-St Paul, we have to be concerned about the preservation of our democratic ideals. We believe that concentrations of Muslims is a very bad idea: to be a good Muslim is to be a bad democrat.

    1. Martha3 years ago

      I agree……

    2. Gerry Gentile3 years ago

      Wow! You got a two-fer there. Slamming Muslims, AND Democrats.

      D***, you’re good.

      1. Jason Jehosephat3 years ago

        Also note the essentially or largely Muslim nations that don’t prohibit apostasy, including Indonesia (the world’s largest Islamic nation), Bangladesh, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Turkey, and many countries in Western Africa. Libya, Senegal, The Gambia, Mali, and Bangladesh prohibit neither blasphemy nor apostasy.

        1. Doug Bath3 years ago

          so 100% of non-Islamic countries do not prohibit apostasy and 40% of Islamic countries do not prohibit apostasy. thank you for confirming what we all can see but dare not speak about.

        2. brevnovak3 years ago

          you’re wrong. a man got into prison in indonesia just for a statement, that there’s no got. it was in 2012

    3. Jason Jehosephat3 years ago

      The Qur’an does forbid people who are already Muslims from converting to another faith, while I’m supposing other religions’ scriptures don’t carry a similar proscription. Hence, it isn’t *surprising* that apostasy laws are specific to Muslim countries. But as for blasphemy laws, note that they are found in plenty of non-Muslim nations, including Peru, Surinam, Guyana, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Greece, and Poland.

  35. Old Uncle Bob3 years ago

    Gods are works of human imagination. Myths. Mankind must crush all systems designed to punish those who recognize and speak the simple and obvious truth that nothing supernatural has ever been shown in evidence. Allah is fiction. Jesus too. Religions are frauds.

    1. OnetrueChrist3 years ago

      True, Except for Jesus Christ is the one true God. All the others are Myths created by the god of this world SATAN.

      1. Jason Jehosephat3 years ago

        So you’ve chosen to believe. Anyone can choose one scripture from all the scriptures that are ought there and say, “This is the one I believe.” The foundation behind your decision is no more solid than the foundation behind the arbitrary choice of anyone who’s selected a different scripture to believe.

        1. Doug Bath3 years ago

          praise Zeus you are right Jason!

    2. Halcyon3 years ago

      You seem to be calling for the very same action (and violently if crush is your modus operandi) that you purportedly are condemning here. More evidence that radical atheists, like their fellow conservative and fundamentalist evangelical religionists, are elitist, uncharitable and exclusivistic people, a most obnoxious and dangerous group.

      1. Gerry Gentile3 years ago

        Whew! You said “radical” atheists. For a minute there I thought you were slamming all atheists. Thank you for pointing out that it isn’t religion/non-religion that’s dangerous. It’s extremism of any form.

    3. Eric Mival3 years ago

      I guess you must have inner blindness to come to your conclusion. Yes, there are times when it must be hard to accept that there is a God, but that does not mean there is not one.

      1. Gerry Gentile3 years ago

        Mmmmm-I’m confused. Is there a god, or is there not? You don’t seem to be clear in your comment.

    4. stephen3 years ago

      the replies “yes, except “my” God is the one true god”….are frikkin hilarious. Sad and completely missing the point, but hilarious nonetheless…

  36. V.Srinivasan3 years ago

    Are you sure there are blasphemy laws in India? Am in India myself and this is the first time i am hearing of such a thing.

    1. Angelina Theodorou3 years ago

      Thanks for your comment, in India, Article 295(a) of the Penal Code (which was inherited from the country’s colonial history) is used to prosecute blasphemy. It was used in 2012, when the government arrested three Hindu teens after they uploaded a video deemed blasphemous onto Facebook. (For more information on the case: state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/religiou…).

      1. Anonymous1 year ago

        Believe it or not Article 295(a) was enacted to protect minority rights. thelogicalindian.com/news/all-yo….
        It is indeed a blasphemy law, but not in the same sense as blasphemy laws of Islamic countries, where the intent is to protect the religion of the state.

  37. Helen R3 years ago

    They left off North Korea. It is not just an. Islamic phenomenon.

    1. Ben3 years ago

      But for the most part it IS an Islamic phenomenon, no need to hide reality

    2. Angelina Theodorou3 years ago

      Helen, thanks for your comment on North Korea. Our sources clearly indicate that North Korea’s government is among the most repressive in the world with respect to religion as well as other civil and political liberties. (The U.S. State Department’s 2012 Report on International Religious Freedom, for example, says that “Genuine freedom of religion did not exist” in North Korea during the most recent year of the report.) But because North Korean society is effectively closed to outsiders and independent observers lack regular access to the country, the sources are unable to provide the kind of specific, timely information that we categorized and counted for this study. Therefore, this analysis and our annual report does not include data for North Korea.

      1. Forse3 years ago

        North Korea is a communist atheist country, therefore by definition there cannot be any apostasy or blasphemy laws, inasmuch as such laws refer only to religions.
        Punishment for apostasy is very much an Islamic thing >>

    3. Doug Bath3 years ago

      they left off the USA also.

  38. steve3 years ago

    Poland has a law that protects “christian values” whatever it can mean….
    And since nobody knows, any two Christians can sue just about anybody;
    cinema owner(for showing a wrong movie), an artist for any symbol used in any art form that relates their faith…

  39. Grant Black3 years ago

    Don’t understand blasphemy laws.

    Do they prohibit blasphemy against one god, many or all gods?

    and why would any state introduce a law to protect ‘God’? You would think true-believers would assume that there God would deal with any blasphemy.. if they really believed that is.

  40. Faris Attia3 years ago

    I’m not sure if it is much of a difference, but article 7 of the Iraqi constitution prohibits accusing someone of being an infidel.

    1. PaulD3 years ago

      If they want to inculcate true religious freedom and freedom of speech, make it perfectly legal to call anyone you want an infidel — just make it against the law to take action against a person so labelled.