The Black population of the United States is growing. In 2019, there were 46.8 million people who self-identified as Black, making up roughly 14% of the country’s population. This marks a 29% increase since 2000, when there were roughly 36.2 million Black Americans.

Black Americans are diverse. This group consists of people with varied racial and ethnic identities and experiences. The nation’s Black population includes those who say their race is Black, either alone or along with other racial backgrounds. It also includes Hispanics or Latinos who say their race is Black.

This fact sheet is a profile of the demographic, geographic and economic characteristics of the U.S. Black population in 2019. In order to present detailed data about this group, charts and analysis about the Black population are analyzed through the lens of four different demographic groups:

  • U.S. Black population (which is inclusive of the following three demographic subgroups):
    • Single-race, non-Hispanic Black people
    • Multiracial, non-Hispanic Black people
    • Black Hispanic people

Scroll down or click through the navigation bar on the left to see various demographic and economic characteristics of the U.S. Black population.

Click here for a downloadable spreadsheet of these findings.

The analysis presented in these fact sheets about the Black population in the United States uses the latest demographic data available. It is based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2019 American Community Survey, provided through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) from the University of Minnesota.

These fact sheets rely on self-identification of race and ethnicity in the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS) to identify the nation’s Black population. However, an individual’s racial and ethnic self-identification may not be fixed and instead can change over time. In addition, the racial and ethnic categories used by the U.S. Census Bureau can change as the way the nation sees itself changes. These changes, in turn, may impact how many people identify as Black (or any other race). See “What Census Calls Us” for more details on how the racial and ethnic categories have changed throughout the years.

Unless otherwise noted, adults are those who are ages 18 and older.

U.S. Black population or total Black population refers to anyone who self-identifies as Black in the United States. This includes those who say their race is only Black; those who say Black is one of two or more races in their background; and those who say they their race is Black, or say that one of their races is Black but also indicate they are of Hispanic or Latino or Black origin. The terms Black population and Black people are used interchangeably in these fact sheets.

The terms single-race Black and Black alone are used interchangeably throughout these fact sheets to refer to the same population. This population is made up of individuals who self-identify only as Black and do not identify as Hispanic or Latino.

The term multiracial Black is used to refer to people who self-identify as two or more races and do not identify as Hispanic or Latino.

The term Black Hispanic is used to refer to those who self-identify as Black and Hispanic or Latino, as well as those who self-identify as multiracial Black and Hispanic or Latino.

Foreign born refers to persons born outside of the United States to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The terms foreign born and immigrant are used interchangeably in these fact sheets. In these fact sheets, we refer to several generations. These are defined by their birth years and ages in 2019 as follows:

GenerationBirth yearsAge in 2019
Under 72012-present0-6
Generation Z (Gen Z)*1997-20127-22
Millennial1981-199623-38
Generation X (Gen X)1965-198039-54
Baby Boomer (Boomer)1946-196455-73
Silent1928-194574-91
GreatestBefore 192892 and older
* No chronological endpoint has been set for this group. For this analysis, Generation Z is defined as those ages 7 to 22 in 2019.

Population growth

There were 46.8 million people in the U.S. who identified as Black in 2019. The Black population has grown by more than 10 million since 2000, when 36.2 million of the U.S. population identified as Black, marking a 29% increase over almost two decades.

More than 4.6 million Black people in the U.S. were born outside the country as of 2019, meaning that 10% of the Black population was foreign born. This is an increase from 2000, when 2.4 million people, or roughly 7%, among the Black population were foreign born.

Chart showing that the U.S. Black population has grown by 29% since 2000

In 2019, the single-race non-Hispanic Black population was the largest demographic subgroup of U.S. Black people, numbering 41 million – fully 87% of the total Black population. This marks an increase of 21% over 2000, when the population was roughly 33.7 million.

More than 4 million members of this population were born outside of the U.S., meaning 10% of single-race Black people are foreign born. This is an increase over 2000, when 1.9 million (roughly 6%) among the single-race, non-Hispanic Black population were foreign born.

Chart showing that the single-race Black population has grown by 21% since 2000

Identifying as multiracial

It’s important to mention that there has been a growth in the share of people in the United States – not just Black Americans – who identify as multiracial in recent years. Part of this is due to expansions in how the Census Bureau asks about ethnic and racial identity. Starting in 2000, the bureau has provided respondents with the option to identify as more than one race. Besides that, younger multiracial people are more likely to identify with multiple racial or ethnic identities, on forms or otherwise.

In addition, there are people with multiple racial identities in their family history who do not describe themselves as multiracial. This suggests that there is likely a discrepancy between the number of multiracial Black people in the U.S., as discovered through demographic data analysis, and the number of multiracial Black people who identify themselves in this way.

The multiracial non-Hispanic Black population is the second-largest subgroup included in this analysis, with around 3.7 million people or 8% of the overall Black population. It has grown from roughly 1.5 million in 2000 to 3.7 million in 2019, marking a 144% increase.

Additionally, 130,000 members of this population were born outside of the country, meaning that 4% of the multiracial Black population is foreign born. This is an increase from 2000, when 250,000 people, or roughly 16%, among the multiracial non-Hispanic Black population were foreign born.

Chart showing that the multiracial Black population has grown by 144% since 2000

There were roughly 2.4 million Black Hispanic people in the U.S. in 2019, which was 5% of the total Black population that year, making this subgroup the smallest population group included in this analysis. This population has grown from roughly 1 million in 2000 to 2.4 million in 2019, marking a 145% increase.

Additionally, roughly 460,000 members of this population were born outside of the country, meaning that almost one-in-five Black Hispanics (19%) are foreign born. This is an increase from 2000, when roughly 260,000 people, or about 27%, among the Black Hispanic population were foreign born.

Chart showing that the Black Hispanic population has grown by 145% since 2000

Age structure

The U.S. Black population is young and growing. The median age of Black people in 2019 was 32, six years younger than the U.S. population’s median age of 38. Roughly 30% of the entire Black population was below the age of 20 and 11% were 65 or older.

Chart showing U.S. Black population age pyramid

Over a third of the U.S. Black population (35%) was 22 years or younger in 2019. An additional 23% were Millennials, meaning roughly 58% of all Black Americans were age 38 or younger in 2019.

Chart showing over a third of the U.S. Black population is 22 or younger

Fertility in the past year

The general fertility rate among Black women ages 15 to 44 is 5.9%.

The single-race Black population is young and growing. The median age of single-race Black people in 2019 was 35, three years younger than the full U.S. population’s median age of 38. Roughly 27% of the single-race Black population were below the age of 20, and 12% were 65 or older.

Chart showing the single-race Black age pyramid

Roughly a third (32%) of the single-race Black population in the U.S. were either members of Gen Z or age 6 or younger, meaning they were 22 or younger in 2019. An additional 24% were Millennials, meaning 56% of single-race Black people were age 38 or younger in 2019. 

Chart showing roughly a third of the single-race U.S. Black population is 22 or younger

Fertility in the past year

The fertility rate among single-race Black women in the U.S. ages 15 to 44 was 6.0% in 2019.

The multiracial population pyramid shows that this population is young and growing. The median age of multiracial Black people in 2019 was 16, making this the youngest subgroup of the Black population and significantly younger than the U.S. population (which had a median age of 38). Over half (57%) of the multiracial Black population was below the age of 20 in 2019, and 3% were 65 or older.

Chart showing multiracial Black age pyramid

In 2019, the majority (63%) of multiracial Black people in the U.S. were members of Gen Z or under the age of 7, meaning they were 22 years old or younger.

Chart showing over half of the U.S. multiracial Black population is 22 or younger

Fertility in the past year

The fertility rate among multiracial Black women in the U.S. ages 15 to 44 is 5.5%.

The total Black Hispanic population is young and growing. The median age of this population group in 2019 was 22, making Black Hispanics the second-youngest group included in this analysis, and notably younger than the U.S. population, which had a median age of 38.

Roughly 45% of the Black Hispanic population was below the age of 20, and 5% were 65 or older.

Chart showing the Black Hispanic age pyramid

In 2019, 51% of the Black Hispanic population in the U.S. were members of Gen Z or under the age of 7. An additional 24% were Millennials, meaning 75% of the Black Hispanic population was 38 years of age or younger that year. 

Chart showing that roughly half of the U.S. Black Hispanic population is 22 or younger

Fertility in the past year

The fertility rate among Black Hispanic women in the U.S. ages 15 to 44 is 5.2%.

Languages

The vast majority of the Black population as of 2019 speaks English very well or only speaks English at home (96%), while almost nine-in-ten (89%) speak only English at home. Besides English, other languages spoken by the Black population ages 5 and older include Spanish (3%), French or Haitian Creole (2%) and Amharic and other Ethiopian languages (1%).

The vast majority of the single-race Black population speaks English very well or only speaks English (97%), while about nine-in-ten (91%) speak only English at home as of 2019. Besides English, other commonly spoken languages by this part of the population ages 5 and older include French or Haitian Creole (2%), Spanish (1%) and Amharic and other Ethiopian languages (1%).

The vast majority of the multiracial Black population speaks English very well or only speaks English at home (99%), while about nine-in-ten (94%) speak only English at home as of 2019. Spanish is spoken by 2% of the multiracial Black population in the United States.

A substantial majority of the multiracial Black population speaks English very well or only speaks English at home (82%), while almost half (48%) speak only English at home as of 2019. Besides English, roughly half (51%) of this population speaks Spanish.

Geography

Regionally, the highest concentration of Black people in the U.S. in 2019 is in the South. More than half (56%) live there, while 17% live in the Midwest, 17% live in the Northeast and 10% live in the West.

When it comes to states of residence, Texas is home to the largest Black population, at about 3.9 million. Florida comes in a close second with 3.8 million, and Georgia comes in third, with 3.6 million.

Map showing that the majority of the U.S. Black population lives in the South

The most populous metropolitan area of residence for all Black people in 2019 is New York City, with 3.8 million. In a distant second is Atlanta, with 2.2 million, and then the Washington, D.C., area, with 1.7 million Black residents.

Table showing the New York City metropolitan area has the largest Black population

The South is the region with the highest concentration of the single-race U.S. Black population in 2019, with a roughly six-in-ten majority (59%) of the total. The Northeast is home to 15%, another 17% live in the Midwest and 9% live in the West.

Texas is home to the largest number of Black people of any state, with around 3.4 million single-race Black people. Georgia and Florida are home to the next largest populations of this population, with roughly 3.3 million single-race Black people each.

Map showing that the majority of the single-race Black population lives in the South

Additionally, these three states are home to some of the urban areas with the highest shares of single-race Black people. New York City is the metropolitan area with the largest share of the nation’s single-race Black population, with roughly 3.1 million. Other top metropolitan areas include Atlanta, Washington, D.C., Chicago and Philadelphia.

Table showing that the New York City metropolitan area has the largest single-race Black population

Regionally, the South is home to the highest concentration of the multiracial population in the U.S., with a plurality (40%) of the total as of 2019. Roughly a quarter (24%) live in the Midwest, one-in-five live in the West and 16% live in the Northeast.

California is the top state of residence for multiracial Black people, with over 350,000. Texas is home to roughly 250,000 multiracial Black people, while Florida has roughly 240,000.

Map showing that four-in-ten multiracial Black people live in the South

New York City is the metropolitan area with the highest number of multiracial Black residents and is home to roughly 160,000 members. Other top metropolitan areas for this subgroup include Washington D.C., Los Angeles and Philadelphia.

Table showing the New York City metropolitan area has the largest multiracial Black population

Regionally, Black Hispanic people are largely concentrated in the Northeast and South (72% in total). Fewer than one-in-five live in the West (17%), and 0ne-in-ten live in the Midwest (10%) as of 2019. New York is the top state of residence for the Black Hispanic population, with roughly 450,000 people. Florida is home to the second-highest number of this population, with 260,000, and California comes in third with 240,000.

Map showing that over two-thirds of Black Hispanics live in the Northeast and South

New York City is the metropolitan area with the largest share of the Black Hispanic population and is home to roughly 510,000. Other top metropolitan areas include Miami (100,000), Boston (100,000) and Los Angeles (70,000).

Table showing that the New York City metropolitan area has the largest Black Hispanic population

Household income

The median household income for Black households in 2019 is $44,000, which means half of households headed by a Black person earn more than that and half earn less.

Broader analysis shows that more than half (54%) of Black households earn less than $50,000, while 46% make $50,000 or more. Almost three-in-ten (28%) make $75,000 or more, including 18% that make $100,000 or more.

Chart showing that nearly half of Black households in U.S. earned $50,000 or more in 2019

The median household income for single-race Black households in 2019 is $43,200, meaning half of households headed by a single-race Black person earn more than that and half earn less.

More than half of these households (55%) earn less than $50,000, with the other 44% making $50,000 or more. Within the group of households with incomes over that sum, more than a quarter (27%) make $75,000 or more, including 17% that make $100,000 or more.

Chart showing that roughly a quarter of single-race Black households earned $75,000 or more in 2019

The median household income for multiracial Black households is $52,000, meaning half of Black households earn more than that and half earn less than that sum as of 2019. Looking at income another way, almost half of households with a multiracial Black householder (47%) make less than $50,000, and 52% make that sum or more. Over a third (35%) make $75,000 or more, including almost a quarter (24%) that make $100,000 or more.

Chart showing that roughly a third of multiracial Black households earned $75,000 or more in 2019

The median household income for Black Hispanic households is $48,900, meaning half of households with a Black Hispanic householder earn more than that and half earn less in 2019.

Further analysis shows that half of Black Hispanic households earn less than $50,000, while 49% make over $50,000. Roughly one-in-three of these households (32%) earn $75,000 or more, including 20% that make $100,000 or more.

Chart showing less than a quarter of Black Hispanic househodls earned $75,000 or more in 2019

Household type

More than a third (38%) of households that Black people live in are headed by married couples as of 2019. Roughly three-in-ten Black people (32%) live in households whose household head is female, and 6% live in male-headed households. Fewer than a quarter (24%) are part of non-family households.  

Chart showing more than a third of Black people live in households headed by married couples

More than a third (37%) of single-race Black people live in households that are headed by married couples as of 2019. Roughly three-in-ten single-race Black people (33%) live in households with female heads of household, and 6% live in male-headed households. Fewer than a quarter (24%) live in non-family households.

Chart showing that more than a third of single-race Black people live in households headed by married couples

More than four-in-ten multiracial Black people (44%) live in households that are headed by married couples as of 2019. Three-in-ten (30%) live in households whose head is female, and 5% live in male-headed households. Additionally, roughly one-in-five multiracial Black people (22%) live in non-family households.

Chart showing more than four-in-ten multiracial Black people live in households headed by married couples

Roughly four-in-ten Black Hispanic people (42%) live in households headed by married couples in 2019. Three-in-ten Black Hispanic people (30%) lived in female-headed households and 5% lived in households headed by male householders. Roughly one-in-five Black Hispanic people lived in non-family households.

Chart showing that roughly four-in-ten Black Hispanic people live in households headed by married couples

Educational attainment

When it comes to educational attainment, almost a quarter (23%) of all Black adults ages 25 and older have a bachelor’s degree or more. A third (33%) have completed some college as of 2019, and more than four-in-ten (44%) have, at most, graduated from high school (or earned an equivalent such as a GED certificate).

Chart showing roughly a quarter of Black adults have a bachelor's degree or higher

When it comes to educational attainment, roughly a quarter (23%) of single-race Black adults ages 25 and older have earned a bachelor’s degree or higher as of 2019. A third (33%) have completed some college and 45% have, at most, graduated from high school or equivalent.

Chart showing that about a quarter of single-race Black adults have a bachelor's degree or higher

When it comes to educational attainment, almost a third (32%) of multiracial Black adults ages 25 and older have earned a bachelor’s degree or higher as of 2019. Almost four-in-ten (38%) have completed some college and 30% have, at most, graduated from high school or its equivalent.

Chart showing that almost a third of multiracial Black adults have a bachelor's degree or higher

When it comes to educational attainment, almost a quarter (23%) of Black Hispanic adults ages 25 and older have earned a bachelor’s degree or higher as of 2019. Roughly a third (32%) have completed some college, and 45% have, at most, graduated from high school or equivalent.

Chart showing almost a quarter of Black Hispanic adults have a bachelor's degree or higher

Religious affiliation

Two-thirds (66%) of all Black adults identify as Protestant. Roughly one-in-five (21%) are unaffiliated with any particular religion, while smaller shares of adults identify as Catholic (6%), other Christian denominations (3%) or non-Christian faiths (3%).

For more, read “Faith Among Black Americans

Chart showing that majority of Black adults identify as Protestant

A majority (69%) of single-race Black adults identify as Protestant. Roughly one-in-five (19%) are unaffiliated with any religion, while smaller shares of adults identify as Catholic (5%), other Christian denominations (3%) or non-Christian faiths (3%).

For more, read “Faith Among Black Americans

Chart showing majority of single-race Black adults identify as Protestant

Similar shares of multiracial Black adults identify as Protestant (41%) or as religiously unaffiliated (38%). Smaller shares of adults within this population subgroup identify as Catholic (11%), other Christian denominations (4%) or non-Christian faiths (6%).

For more, read “Faith Among Black Americans

Chart showing the majority of Black Hispanic adults identify as Protestant or Catholic

Almost six-in-ten Black Hispanic adults (59%) identify as either Protestant (35%) or Catholic (24%). A third identify as unaffiliated (33%), while smaller shares identify as other Christian denominations (2%) or follow non-Christian faiths (6%).

For more, read “Faith Among Black Americans

Chart showing that most multiracial Black adults identify as Protestant or as religiously unaffiliated