This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary Researchers

Justin Nortey, Research Assistant
Claire Gecewicz, Research Associate

Research Team

Gregory A. Smith, Associate Director, Research
Alan Cooperman, Director of Religion Research
Becka A. Alper, Senior Researcher
Besheer Mohamed, Senior Researcher
Joshua Alvarado, Research Assistant

Methods Team

Andrew Mercer, Senior Research Methodologist
Nick Bertoni, Senior Panel Manager
Ashley Amaya, Senior Survey Research Methodologist
Dorene Asare-Marfo, Survey Research Methodologist
Arnold Lau, Research Methodologist
Nick Hatley, Research Analyst

Editorial and Graphic Design

Michael Lipka, Editorial Manager
David Kent, Senior Copy Editor
Rebecca Ann Leppert, Editorial Assistant
Bill Webster, Senior Information Graphics Designer

Communications and Web Publishing

Stacy Rosenberg, Associate Director, Digital
Travis Mitchell, Digital Producer
Anna Schiller, Senior Communications Manager
Kelsey Beveridge, Communications Associate

Others at Pew Research Center who provided valuable feedback and guidance on this project include Scott Keeter, senior survey advisor; Lee Rainie, director of internet and technology research; Stephanie Kramer, senior researcher; Ariana Monique Salazar, research analyst; and Elizabeth Podrebarac Sciupac, former senior researcher.

Pew Research Center also is grateful to David C. Lamberth, professor of philosophy and theology at Harvard Divinity School, and James P. Sterba, professor of philosophy at the University of Notre Dame, for their input into the design of this study.