This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Research team

Scott Keeter, Senior Survey Advisor
Anna Brown, Research Methodologist
Dana Popky, Associate Panel Manager


Courtney Kennedy, Vice President, Methods and Innovation
Ashley Amaya, Associate Director    
Dorene Asare-Marfo, Panel Manager
Andrew Mercer, Senior Research Methodologist
Arnold Lau, Research Methodologist

Communications and editorial

Nida Asheer, Senior Communications Manager
Talia Price, Communications Associate
Anna Jackson, Editorial Assistant

Graphic design and web publishing

Bill Webster, Senior Information Graphics Designer
Sara Atske, Digital Producer
Nick Zanetti, Associate Web Developer

Several others provided helpful comments and input on this study, including Tanya Arditi, Nida Asheer, Achsah Callahan, Alan Cooperman, Claudia Deane, Carroll Doherty, Rachel Drian, Juliana Horowitz, Courtney Kennedy, Jocelyn Kiley, Hannah Klein, Mark Hugo Lopez, Kim Parker, Jeff Passel, Julia O’Hanlon, Baxter Oliphant, Maya Pottiger, Talia Price and Greg Smith.