This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Colleen McClain, Research Associate
Risa Gelles-Watnick, Research Assistant

Research team

Monica Anderson, Associate Director, Research
Lee Rainie, Director, Internet and Technology Research
Emily A. Vogels, Research Associate
Michelle Faverio, Research Analyst
Gabe Borelli, Research Associate
Olivia Sidoti, Research Assistant
Andrew Perrin, Former Research Analyst

Editorial and graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
Rebecca Leppert, Editorial Assistant

Communications and web publishing

Kelsey Beveridge, Communications Associate
Haley Nolan, Communications Manager
Sara Atske, Associate Digital Producer

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of Pew Research Center’s methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Dorene Asare-Marfo, Ashley Amaya and Arnold Lau. This project also benefited from feedback by the following Pew Research Center staff: Alec Tyson, Anna Brown, Khadijah Edwards, Ted Van Green and Gar Meng Leong, as well as former Pew Research Center staffer Ruth Igielnik.