This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Find related reports online at

Primary researchers

Emily A. Vogels, Research Associate

Research team

Lee Rainie, Director, Internet and Technology Research
Monica Anderson, Associate Director, Research    
Colleen McClain, Research Associate
Michelle Faverio, Research Analyst
Risa Gelles-Watnick, Research Assistant
Olivia Sidoti, Research Assistant
Andrew Perrin, Former Research Analyst

Editorial and graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
David Kent, Senior Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Kelsey Beveridge, Communications Associate
Haley Nolan, Communications Manager
Sara Atske, Associate Digital Producer
Janakee Chavda, Assistant Digital Producer

In addition, the project benefited greatly from the guidance of Pew Research Center’s methodology team: Courtney Kennedy, Andrew Mercer, Dorene Asare-Marfo, Ashley Amaya and Arnold Lau. This project also benefited from feedback by Juliana Horowitz and Justin Nortey of Pew Research Center, as well as former Pew Research Center staff Ruth Igielnik and Nick Bertoni. The Center gained invaluable advice in developing the questionnaire from Amanda Lenhart, program director of health and data research at the Data & Society Research Institute, and Bobby Duffy, professor of public policy and director of The Policy Institute at King’s College London.