The Black population of the United States is growing. In 2019, there were 46.8 million people who self-identified as Black, making up roughly 14% of the country’s population. This marks a 29% increase since 2000, when there were roughly 36.2 million Black Americans.

Black Americans are diverse. This group consists of people with varied racial and ethnic identities and experiences. The nation’s Black population includes those who say their race is Black, either alone or along with other racial backgrounds. It also includes Hispanics or Latinos who say their race is Black.

This fact sheet is a profile of the demographic, geographic and economic characteristics of the U.S. Black population in 2019. In order to present detailed data about this group, charts and analysis about the Black population are analyzed through the lens of four different demographic groups:

  • U.S. Black population (which is inclusive of the following three demographic subgroups):
    • Single-race, non-Hispanic Black people
    • Multiracial, non-Hispanic Black people
    • Black Hispanic people

Scroll down or click through the navigation bar on the left to see various demographic and economic characteristics of the U.S. Black population.

Click here for a downloadable spreadsheet of these findings.

How we did this

The analysis presented in these fact sheets about the Black population in the United States uses the latest demographic data available. It is based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2019 American Community Survey, provided through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) from the University of Minnesota.

Terminology

These fact sheets rely on self-identification of race and ethnicity in the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS) to identify the nation’s Black population. However, an individual’s racial and ethnic self-identification may not be fixed and instead can change over time. In addition, the racial and ethnic categories used by the U.S. Census Bureau can change as the way the nation sees itself changes. These changes, in turn, may impact how many people identify as Black (or any other race). See “What Census Calls Us” for more details on how the racial and ethnic categories have changed throughout the years.

Unless otherwise noted, adults are those who are ages 18 and older.

U.S. Black population or total Black population refers to anyone who self-identifies as Black in the United States. This includes those who say their race is only Black; those who say Black is one of two or more races in their background; and those who say they their race is Black, or say that one of their races is Black but also indicate they are of Hispanic or Latino or Black origin. The terms Black population and Black people are used interchangeably in these fact sheets.

The terms single-race Black and Black alone are used interchangeably throughout these fact sheets to refer to the same population. This population is made up of individuals who self-identify only as Black and do not identify as Hispanic or Latino.

The term multiracial Black is used to refer to people who self-identify as two or more races and do not identify as Hispanic or Latino.

The term Black Hispanic is used to refer to those who self-identify as Black and Hispanic or Latino, as well as those who self-identify as multiracial Black and Hispanic or Latino.

Foreign born refers to persons born outside of the United States to parents neither of whom was a U.S. citizen. The terms foreign born and immigrant are used interchangeably in these fact sheets. In these fact sheets, we refer to several generations. These are defined by their birth years and ages in 2019 as follows:

GenerationBirth yearsAge in 2019
Under 72012-present0-6
Generation Z (Gen Z)*1997-20127-22
Millennial1981-199623-38
Generation X (Gen X)1965-198039-54
Baby Boomer (Boomer)1946-196455-73
Silent1928-194574-91
GreatestBefore 192892 and older
* No chronological endpoint has been set for this group. For this analysis, Generation Z is defined as those ages 7 to 22 in 2019.

Population growth

Age structure

Languages

Geography

Household income

Household type

Educational attainment

Religious affiliation