Use of the term Latinx by members of the U.S. Congress on social media has increased substantially in recent years, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis. One-quarter of lawmakers mentioned the term on Facebook or Twitter during the 116th Congress, up from just 2% who did so during the 114th Congress. By contrast, a recent survey of U.S. Hispanics by the Center found that 23% had heard of the term Latinx but just 3% use it to describe themselves.
Latinx is a gender-neutral or nonbinary term used to describe people who are of or relate to Latin American origin or descent. It has emerged as a pan-ethnic alternative to Latino, Latina and Hispanic in recent years.
For this analysis, tweets and Facebook posts were classified as mentioning “Latinx,” “Latino,” “Latina” or “Hispanic” if they used those specific words – regardless of capitalization – in the text of the post. (Images and other attachments were not included.) Posts using Latino, Latina or both were combined for analysis as “Latino/Latina.”
Dating has always come with challenges. But the advent of dating apps and other new technologies – as well as the #MeToo movement – presents a new set of norms and expectations for American singles looking for casual or committed relationships, according to a recent Pew Research Center survey.
Some 15% of U.S. adults say they are single and looking for a committed relationship or casual dates. Among them, most say they are dissatisfied with their dating lives, according to the survey, which was conducted in October 2019 – before the coronavirus pandemic shook up the dating scene. Here are some additional key findings from the study.
The United States has more immigrants than any other country in the world. Today, more than 40 million people living in the U.S. were born in another country, accounting for about one-fifth of the world’s migrants. The population of immigrants is also very diverse, with just about every country in the world represented among U.S. immigrants.
Pew Research Center regularly publishes statistical portraits of the nation’s foreign-born population, which include historical trends since 1960. Based on these portraits, here are answers to some key questions about the U.S. immigrant population.
How many people in the U.S. are immigrants?
The U.S. foreign-born population reached a record 44.8 million in 2018. Since 1965, when U.S. immigration laws replaced a national quota system, the number of immigrants living in the U.S. has more than quadrupled. Immigrants today account for 13.7% of the U.S. population, nearly triple the share (4.8%) in 1970. However, today’s immigrant share remains below the record 14.8% share in 1890, when 9.2 million immigrants lived in the U.S.
A narrow majority of U.S. adults (54%) say they would oppose the federal government providing a guaranteed income – sometimes called a universal basic income (UBI) – of about $1,000 per month for all adult citizens, whether or not they work; 45% favor the proposal.
The idea of the government providing a universal basic income for all adult citizens draws broad and intense opposition among Republicans, but is generally supported by Democrats, according to a new Pew Research Center survey.
Nearly eight-in-ten Republicans and Republican-leaning independents (78%) oppose the federal government providing a universal basic income of about $1,000 per person, with 62% strongly opposed. A smaller share of Democrats and Democratic leaners (66%) favor a UBI, with just a third supporting the proposal strongly.
UBI was the centerpiece of former Democratic presidential candidate Andrew Yang’s campaign. Yang is scheduled to speak to the Democratic National Convention on Aug. 20, shortly before Joe Biden accepts the party’s presidential nomination.
The 2020 presidential election is more than two months away, but many social media users in the United States already are exhausted by how much political content they see on these platforms.
Some 55% of adult social media users say they feel “worn out” by how many political posts and discussions they see on social media, according to a Pew Research Center survey of U.S. adults conducted July 13-19. This share has risen 18 percentage points since the Center first asked this question in the summer leading up to the 2016 presidential contest and 9 points just in the past year.
At the same time, users are less ambivalent about seeing these types of posts today than in the past. Today, 29% of social media users say they don’t feel strongly one way or another about encountering political discussions, down from about four-in-ten in 2016 and 2019. Across these surveys, including the latest, relatively small shares – ranging from 15% to 20% – have said they like seeing lots of political posts on social media.
As the 2020 presidential campaign ramps up, a growing share of Americans say it is likely that Russia or other foreign governments will attempt to influence the November election. At the same time, confidence in the federal government to prevent election interference by foreign governments has declined.
Three-quarters of U.S. adults say it is very or somewhat likely that Russia or other foreign governments will attempt to influence the presidential election, including 44% who say it is very likely, according to a Pew Research Center survey conducted July 27-Aug. 2.
These views have changed little since January. But Americans are now more likely to expect foreign election interference than they were in October 2018 – shortly before that fall’s midterms – when 67% expected it. And the share who say such efforts are very likely is 12 percentage points higher now than two years ago.
Some 6.2 million U.S. adults – or 2.4% of the country’s adult population – report being two or more races, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of 2018 U.S. Census Bureau data. Of these Americans, 22% are White and American Indian, 21% are Black and White, 20% are White and Asian American, 4% are Black and American Indian and 2% are Black and Asian American. About three-in-ten (31%) are some other combination, including 9% who select three or more races. The 2000 census was the first time Americans were able to choose more than one race to describe themselves, allowing for an estimate of the nation’s multiracial population.
In a 2015 study that used a broader definition of the term – one that took into account how adults described their own race as well as the racial background of their parents and grandparents – Pew Research Center estimated that 6.9% of the U.S. adult population could be considered multiracial. The 2015 study also explored the attitudes and experiences of these adults, revealing the complexities of multiracial identity. Here are five key findings from that report:
A century after the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote, about half of U.S. adults (49%) – including 52% of men and 46% of women – say granting women the right to vote has been the most important milestone in advancing the position of women in the country, relative to other notable events and achievements, according to a recent Pew Research Center survey.
And women have largely exercised this right: In every U.S. presidential election dating back to 1984, women reported having turned out to vote at slightly higher rates than men, according to a new analysis of Census Bureau data by the Center. At the same time, the gender gap in party affiliation continues to widen.
In 2016, 63% of women who were eligible to vote said they cast ballots in the presidential election, compared with 59% of men. That 4 percentage point gender gap is similar to the 4-point gaps in 2012 and 2008 as well as the 3-point gaps in 2004, 2000 and 1996. In 1980, when voter turnout data first became available, there was no gender gap in turnout: 64% of both men and women reported turning out to vote in that year’s election. These patterns are also similar for midterm elections.
The Trump administration has finalized plans to open the 19-million-acre Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska to oil and gas drilling for the first time. The decision caps decades of efforts by oil and gas companies and some Alaska leaders to allow drilling in the wilderness area, even as environmental activists warn that allowing it could threaten polar bears and other wildlife. Drilling opponents are expected to challenge the administration’s plans in court.
As the debate resurfaces over drilling in the wildlife refuge – the largest in the country – here are some facts about Americans’ views of expanded oil and gas drilling, as well as how the public sees government efforts to protect wildlife and open lands. The analysis also includes data on how oil and gas production in the United States has changed in recent years. All findings are drawn from previously published Pew Research Center surveys and studies.
One-third of U.S. adults have watched religious services online or on television in the past month, and a little over half of them – or 18% of all adults – say they began doing this for the first time during the coronavirus pandemic. Of course, if you’re worshipping remotely, you can’t hug the other members of your congregation or shake hands with your minister, priest, rabbi or imam. But you can wear whatever clothes you want, turn up (or down) the volume, forget about traffic in the parking lot, and easily check out that service you’ve heard about in a congregation across town or even across the country.
Whatever the reasons, lots of people like virtual worship. Nine out of 10 Americans who have watched services online or on TV in the past month say they are either “very” satisfied (54%) or “somewhat” satisfied (37%) with the experience; just 8% say they are “not too” or “not at all” satisfied, according to a recent Pew Research Center survey conducted in mid-July.
So what does this bode for the future? By the time the COVID-19 pandemic has finally run its course, will Americans have lost the habit of going in person to a church, synagogue, temple or mosque? Some commentators have suggested that just as the pandemic has accelerated the trend toward shopping online and made Americans reliant on the internet for work, school, health and entertainment, so might many, if not all, varieties of religious experience move online in the 21st century.
But that’s not what the people who’ve been worshipping online see in their future. On the contrary, most U.S. adults overall say that when the pandemic is over, they expect to go back to attending religious services in person as often as they did before the coronavirus outbreak.
About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts.