Mar 9, 2018 9:58 am

How to access Pew Research Center survey data

Pew Research Center regularly makes available the full datasets that underlie most of our reports. We typically do not publish the dataset at the same time as the report. The lag time varies by study. That’s because it takes some time for us to complete all reporting for a given study and to prepare the data for public release. Survey datasets are cleaned to make them easier to use and to remove any information that could be used to identify individual respondents. Protecting confidentiality also means that some datasets of rare populations are never released (for instance, surveys of scientists or foreign policy experts).

In addition to releasing data from our phone surveys, we also now make available data from our online, nationally representative American Trends Panel (ATP). You can go to this page to see the list of available ATP datasets and the topics that they cover.

There are two ways to locate datasets that are available for download. Our Download Datasets page provides links to all datasets that are available from each of our research areas, as well as from our American Trends Panel. Each research area’s page on the Center’s website also includes a “Datasets” or “Data and Resources” tab which provides access to available data, listed in reverse chronological order by when the survey was fielded. When available, those pages also include a list of Pew Research Center publications based on each dataset. Read More

Topics: Research Methods

Mar 8, 2018 3:02 pm

Negative views of democracy more widespread in countries with low political affiliation

A system of competing political parties that gives citizens a voice is widely considered one of the core principles of liberal democracy, and this feature is common to a wide range of countries around the globe – even ones where the quality of choice at the ballot box is questionable. Parties appear to matter in practice, not just theory: In countries where more people are unaffiliated with any political party, popular support for representative democracy is also lower, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of public opinion in 35 countries.

Across the nations surveyed, a median of 26% do not identify with any political party in their country, though that percentage ranges from as low as 2% in India to as high as 78% in Chile.

And Chile is illustrative of the apparent link between skepticism of democracy and party unaffiliation. Although a global median of only 17% oppose representative democracy as a form of government, roughly a third (35%) of Chileans hold this view. Disenchantment with established democracy may help explain why less than half of registered voters turned out for Chile’s recent presidential election.

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Topics: Political Party Affiliation, Democracy, Political Attitudes and Values

Mar 8, 2018 12:02 pm

Nearly one-in-five Americans now listen to audiobooks

Adrian Malone, left, helps Gerald Elston adjust the volume on his headphones as the two listen to audiobooks at school in Washington, D.C. (Jahi Chikwendiu/The Washington Post via Getty Images)
Adrian Malone, left, helps Gerald Elston adjust the volume on his headphones as the two listen to audiobooks at school in Washington, D.C. (Jahi Chikwendiu/The Washington Post via Getty Images)

Americans are spreading their book consumption across several formats, and the use of audiobooks is rising.

About three-quarters (74%) of Americans have read a book in the past 12 months in any format, a figure that has remained largely unchanged since 2012, according to a Pew Research Center survey conducted in January. Print books remain the most popular format for reading, with 67% of Americans having read a print book in the past year.

And while shares of print and e-book readers are similar to those from a survey conducted in 2016, there has been a modest but statistically significant increase in the share of Americans who read audiobooks, from 14% to 18%.

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Topics: E-reading, Internet Activities, Technology Adoption, Information Seeking

Mar 7, 2018 1:31 pm

Federal judicial picks have become more contentious, and Trump’s are no exception

Neil Gorsuch is sworn in as the newest member of the U.S. Supreme Court by Justice Anthony Kennedy in a White House Rose Garden ceremony on April 10, 2017. President Donald Trump, who appointed him, looks on as Gorsuch's wife, Louise, holds the Bible. (Xinhua/Yin Bogu via Getty Images)
Neil Gorsuch is sworn in as the newest member of the U.S. Supreme Court by Justice Anthony Kennedy in a White House Rose Garden ceremony on April 10, 2017. President Donald Trump, who appointed him, looks on as Gorsuch’s wife, Louise, holds the Bible. (Xinhua/Yin Bogu via Getty Images)

President Donald Trump has appointed 29 judges to the federal bench since his inauguration, including 14 appeals court judges and a Supreme Court justice, Neil Gorsuch. While Trump has moved quickly to put his stamp on the federal judiciary, his judges have also faced a record amount of opposition, at least based on the average number of Senate votes cast against them.

The 23 men and six women Trump has successfully appointed so far have faced a total of 654 “no” votes on the floor of the Senate, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of data from the Federal Judicial Center and the U.S. Senate. That works out to an average of nearly 23 votes against each confirmed judge – by far the highest average for any president’s judges since the Senate expanded to its current 100 members in 1959.

The 330 judges Barack Obama appointed during his eight years in office faced an average of six votes against them. George W. Bush’s 328 confirmed judges faced an average of two, and Bill Clinton’s 382 judges faced an average of just over one. (This analysis counts judges for each Senate confirmation vote they faced. Some judges held multiple judicial positions and are counted more than once. Clarence Thomas, for instance, is counted twice under George H.W. Bush’s total because Thomas was confirmed to two separate positions that each required a confirmation vote: first to a seat on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in 1990, then to the Supreme Court in 1991.)

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Topics: Federal Government, Donald Trump

Mar 7, 2018 12:03 pm

Women in majority-male workplaces report higher rates of gender discrimination

(Hero Images)
(Hero Images)

The gains women have made over the past several decades in labor force participation, wages and access to more lucrative positions have strengthened their position in the American workforce. Even so, there is gender imbalance in the workplace, and women who report that their workplace has more men than women have a very different set of experiences than their counterparts in work settings that are mostly female or have an even mix of men and women.

A plurality of women (48%) say they work in places where there are more women than men, while 18% say there are more men than women, according to a Pew Research Center survey. Similarly, 44% of men say their workplace is majority-male, and 19% say women outnumber men. About a third of women (33%) and men (36%) say both genders are about equally represented in their workplace.

The survey – conducted in 2017, prior to the recent outcry about sexual harassment by men in prominent positions – found that women employed in majority-male workplaces are more likely to say their gender has made it harder for them to get ahead at work, they are less likely to say women are treated fairly in personnel matters, and they report experiencing gender discrimination at significantly higher rates.

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Topics: Discrimination and Prejudice, Gender, Social Values, Work and Employment

Mar 6, 2018 10:09 am

6 facts about how U.S. Catholics see Pope Francis

Cartrice Haynesworth, center, has a selfie taken with Pope Francis as he visits Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Washington in September 2015 in Washington, D.C. (David Goldman-Pool/Getty Images)
Cartrice Haynesworth, center, has a selfie taken with Pope Francis as he visits Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Washington in September 2015 in Washington, D.C. (David Goldman-Pool/Getty Images)

Almost five years since his election, Pope Francis continues to make headlines around the world with his encyclicals and comments on a variety of issues, from the environment to human sexuality to poverty. At the same time, the first pontiff from Latin America has appointed many cardinals from the “global south” – that is, developing nations mostly in the Southern Hemisphere – which has shifted the church’s leadership structure away from Europe.

As Francis approaches the fifth anniversary of his papacy on March 13, here are six facts about how American Catholics view the pope.

1Pope Francis remains very popular among U.S. Catholics, with 84% saying they have a favorable opinion of him, according to a survey conducted by Pew Research Center in January 2018. This is similar to the 85% of U.S. Catholics who had a positive opinion of Francis in 2014, just a year after the start of his papacy. Even larger shares of U.S. Catholics see the pope as compassionate (94%) and humble (91%), exactly the same as in 2015, the last time we asked about these attributes.

2The pope’s consistently high approval ratings haven’t led to an increase in Mass attendance among U.S. Catholics. About four-in-ten (38%) now say they attend Mass at least once a week, slightly less than the 41% who said so in a series of aggregated surveys conducted in 2012 and the beginning of 2013, right before Francis was elected pope.

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Topics: Catholics and Catholicism, Christians and Christianity, Religious Affiliation, Religious Leaders

Mar 5, 2018 9:00 am

11% of Americans don’t use the internet. Who are they?

For many Americans, going online is an important way to connect with friends and family, shop, get news and search for information. Yet today, 11% of U.S. adults do not use the internet, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of survey data.

The size of this group has changed little over the past three years, despite ongoing government and social service programs to encourage internet adoption in underserved areas. But that 11% figure is substantially lower than in 2000, when the Center first began to study the social impact of technology. That year, nearly half (48%) of American adults did not use the internet.

A 2013 Pew Research Center survey found some key reasons that some people do not use the internet. A third of non-internet users (34%) did not go online because they had no interest in doing so or did not think the internet was relevant to their lives. Another 32% of non-users said the internet was too difficult to use, including 8% of this group who said they were “too old to learn.” Cost was also a barrier for some adults who were offline – 19% cited the expense of internet service or owning a computer.

The Center’s latest analysis also shows that internet non-adoption is correlated to a number of demographic variables, including age, educational attainment, household income and community type.

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Topics: Internet Activities, Technology Adoption, Digital Divide

Mar 2, 2018 4:00 pm

Many Italians are deeply pessimistic ahead of general election

Party logos on display at Italy's Interior Ministry ahead of the March 4 general elections. (Filippo Monteforte/AFP/Getty Images)
Party logos on display at Italy’s Interior Ministry ahead of the March 4 general elections. (Filippo Monteforte/AFP/Getty Images)

Pessimism and disaffection are widespread among Italians ahead of the country’s general election on Sunday. In a Pew Research Center survey conducted last fall, 82% of Italians said they distrust parliament and an equal share said the national economic situation is bad. About three-quarters (77%) said politicians don’t care what people like them think, including 59% who felt that way strongly.

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Topics: Western Europe, Europe

Mar 1, 2018 4:02 pm

5 facts about U.S. evangelical Protestants

The Rev. Billy Graham preaching in 1955. (Keystone/Getty Images)
The Rev. Billy Graham preaching in 1955. (Keystone/Getty Images)

The Rev. Billy Graham, who recently died at age 99, was one of the most influential and important evangelical Christian leaders of the 20th century. From humble beginnings in rural North Carolina, Graham went on to become a world famous evangelist who drew huge crowds while, at the same time, developing close relationships with several U.S. presidents.

Graham is probably best known for the nearly six decades he spent traveling the world, preaching and evangelizing to millions in his stadium crusades. Graham also cofounded Christianity Today magazine, which remains an important chronicle of evangelical life and culture. Finally, Graham will be remembered as the “pastor to presidents;” he befriended and advised presidents from both parties, including Dwight Eisenhower, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon and Bill Clinton.

As the country remembers Graham, here are five facts about American evangelical Protestants.

1About a quarter (25.4%) of U.S. adults identify with evangelical Protestantism, according to Pew Research Center’s 2014 Religious Landscape Study. In that survey, evangelical Protestants are identified mainly on the basis of their affiliation with evangelical denominations (such as the Southern Baptist Convention, the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod or the Presbyterian Church in America, to name just a few) or with nondenominational evangelical churches. Evangelical Protestantism is the nation’s single largest religious group, exceeding the size of the nation’s Catholic (20.8%), mainline Protestant (14.7%) and religiously unaffiliated (22.8%) populations.

2The evangelical Protestant share of the population has dipped slightly in recent years (from 26.3% in 2007 to 25.4% in 2014), but more slowly than the mainline Protestant and Catholic populations. Though the percentage of Americans who identify with evangelical Protestant denominations has ticked downward, the absolute number of evangelicals appears to be rising as the overall U.S. population grows. In 2014, there were roughly 62.2 million evangelical Protestant adults, up from about 59.8 million in 2007.

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Topics: Christians and Christianity, Evangelical Protestants and Evangelicalism, Religious Affiliation, Religious Leaders

Mar 1, 2018 3:00 pm

Millennials projected to overtake Baby Boomers as America’s largest generation

Millennials are on the cusp of surpassing Baby Boomers as the nation’s largest living adult generation, according to population projections from the U.S. Census Bureau. As of July 1, 2016 (the latest date for which population estimates are available), Millennials, whom we define as ages 20 to 35 in 2016, numbered 71 million, and Boomers (ages 52 to 70) numbered 74 million. Millennials are expected to overtake Boomers in population in 2019 as their numbers swell to 73 million and Boomers decline to 72 million. Generation X (ages 36 to 51 in 2016) is projected to pass the Boomers in population by 2028.

The Millennial generation continues to grow as young immigrants expand its ranks. Boomers – whose generation was defined by the boom in U.S. births following World War II – are aging and their numbers shrinking in size as the number of deaths among them exceeds the number of older immigrants arriving in the country.

Because generations are analytical constructs, it takes time for popular and expert consensus to develop as to the precise boundaries that demarcate one generation from another. Pew Research Center has assessed demographic, labor market, attitudinal and behavioral measures and has now established an endpoint – albeit inexact – for the Millennial generation. According to our revised definition, the youngest “Millennial” was born in 1996This post has been updated accordingly (see note below).

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Topics: Baby Boomers, Millennials, Generations and Age