This region has been predominantly female since at least World War II, when many Soviet men died in battle or left the country to fight. In 1950, there were just 76.6 men per 100 women in the territory that is now Russia. That number rose steadily in subsequent decades, climbing to 88.4 by 1995 before declining again.
The gender ratio in Russia is currently 86.8 men per 100 women, and the ratios in Latvia (84.8), Ukraine (86.3), Armenia (86.5), Belarus (86.8) and other former Soviet nations are similarly low.
(By contrast, the ratio in the U.S. is 98.3 men per 100 women, and the global ratio is 101.8 men per 100 women, according to 2015 United Nations data. The U.S. has been more female than male since at least 1950, while the global population first became majority male around 1960.)
So what are the factors that set the former Soviet bloc apart?
The population in Russia and the former USSR as a whole is older than that of the world. Most of these nations, including the most populous, also have low fertility rates compared with the global average. This skews the population’s gender ratio because older people are more likely to be female, while more younger people are male. Read More →
Seven decades after the end of World War II, most American Jews say remembering the Holocaust is essential to what being Jewish means to them, personally.
About 6 million European Jews (roughly two-thirds of the continent’s Jewish population at the time) were killed by the Nazis during the Holocaust, which began in about 1941 and ended in May 1945 when Germany was defeated by the Allied Powers. The war came to a close in August 1945 when the Japanese surrendered.
About three-quarters (73%) of American Jews say remembering the Holocaust is an essential part of being Jewish, according to a 2013 Pew Research Center survey. Those surveyed also were asked about whether other aspects of Jewish life (such as observing Jewish law or being part of a Jewish community) were important to their Jewish identity. Only one of these eight other options, “leading an ethical life,” ranked almost as highly (69%) as “remembering the Holocaust.”
The debate over the safety of genetically modified foods has put state lawmakers who favor requiring labeling of these products at odds with counterparts in Congress who oppose it. Americans’ concerns about GM foods are providing the backdrop: A majority of them believe such foods are generally unsafe to eat.
The House last month passed a bill that would nullify any state laws that require labeling, dealing a blow to state lawmakers and advocates who support such a move. A similar bill has yet to be introduced in the Senate. This comes after three states – Vermont, Connecticut and Maine – passed legislation this year making GM food labeling mandatory; dozens of other states are exploring similar bills on the issue.
As this issue plays out on Capitol Hill, polls show that a majority of Americans support labeling genetically modified foods, and half check for GM food labels while shopping.
More than half (57%) of U.S. adults believe that GM foods are generally unsafe to eat, while 37% say these foods are safe, according to a Pew Research Center survey. Women are more likely than men to view GM foods as unsafe (65% vs. 49%). Opinions also vary by race and ethnicity; blacks and Hispanics are more likely than whites to say that genetically modified foods are generally unsafe to eat.
Read More →
In a few weeks, America’s roughly 53.5 million K-12 students will head to the classroom. Trading in swimming pools and summer jobs for math problems and history homework, these students will hit the books at one of more than 129,200 schools across the country, including about 5,700 charter schools and 30,900 private schools.
Pew Research Center has found today’s American students as a whole to be more diverse – and on track to be better educated – than their parents and grandparents. Here are five key findings about these students:
1As a whole, America’s K-12 students are more racially diverse than ever. The U.S. Department of Education projected that minorities would outnumber whites at public schools by fall 2014, due largely to fast growth in the number of Hispanic and Asian school-age children born in the U.S. Since 2000 there has also been a large increase in the number of states where at least one-in-five public school kindergartners are Latino.
These changes reflect a broader shift toward a majority-minority youth population. Young Americans are far more likely than older Americans to be racial or ethnic minorities. Data from the Census Bureau show that half of Americans younger than 5 were minorities in 2013, compared with just 17% of those ages 85 or older.
2Yet, even while school-age children as a whole have become more diverse, most white students still attend largely white schools. Just 17.1% of whites attended a school where minorities made up at least half of all students in 2012. Meanwhile, more than three-quarters of Hispanics and blacks (and six-in-ten Asians) attended these majority-minority schools. But many of these minority students are going to school with classmates of their same race or ethnicity. For the 2011-12 school year, the average Latino student attended a school that was 56.8% Latino, and the average black student attended a school that was 48.8% black, according to a recent report from the Civil Rights Project at the University of California, Los Angeles. (The average white student attended a school that was 72.5% white.)
Category: 5 Facts
From measuring teens’ internet usage to finding out what devices they own, Pew Research Center has been examining the digital lives of teenagers for over a decade. Our latest report focuses on how teens, who often live tech-saturated lives, develop and sustain friendships in the digital age, including where they meet, communicate and spend time with friends.
Here are six key facts about teens, technology and friendships:
1More than half of teens have made at least one new friend online. Fully 57% of teenagers have met a new friend over the internet, with nearly three-in-ten teens (29%) saying they have made more than five friends this way. But most of these relationships remain online, with a majority (77%) of all teenagers saying they have never met an online friend in person.
2Social media sites are popular places for teens to make friends online: About two-thirds (64%) of teens who have met a friend online say they have met new friends via a social networking site. Additionally, a majority of teens say social media platforms have made them feel more connected to their friends’ lives and feelings. Roughly eight-in-ten social-media-using teens (83%) say that sites like Facebook or Instagram make them feel more connected to what is happening in their friends’ lives, while 70% say these social platforms make them feel more in tune with their friends’ feelings.
Category: 5 Facts
Jon Stewart is stepping down as host of The Daily Show after 16 years, handing the job over to 31-year-old South African comic Trevor Noah. During that time, the show has served not only as a source of media criticism, but also as a source of news in its own right.
As Stewart’s tenure comes to an end, here are some key facts about how his program has made its imprint on journalism.
1While it’s nowhere near the top, 12% of online Americans cited The Daily Show as a place they got their news. This audience share was on par with that of USA Today (12%) and The Huffington Post (13%) among 36 different news outlets Pew Research Center asked about in a 2014 survey. Roughly equal shares of online Americans trust (16%) and distrust (18%) The Daily Show as a source of government and political news, but there is a strong ideological split in who trusts the show: Almost half (45%) of consistent liberals say they trust The Daily Show, while less than 1% of consistent conservatives say the same. Read More →
Category: 5 Facts
The Obama administration has issued its final regulations governing how the Affordable Care Act’s mandate to provide contraception coverage applies to religiously affiliated nonprofits and businesses.
But the announcement has done little to quell the objections of some religious groups. Indeed, in the weeks since the new regulations were published, one religious charity (Little Sisters of the Poor) has asked the Supreme Court to overturn a decision upholding the regulations, and a Christian school (Wheaton College in Illinois) has announced that it will stop offering its students health insurance due to the mandate.
Contraception Mandate Timeline
March 23, 2010 – Affordable Care Act becomes law
Aug. 1, 2011 – HHS issues rules requiring contraceptive coverage
Feb. 1, 2013 – Obama administration proposes opt-out compromise for religious nonprofits
July 2, 2013 – Faith leaders petition President Obama to expand exemptions for religious objections
June 30, 2014 – Supreme Court rules in Hobby Lobby case
July 10, 2015 – Final regulations issued on applying the mandate
July 23, 2015 – Little Sisters of the Poor file appeal to Supreme Court challenging mandate
The issue first arose in 2011, when the Department of Health and Human Services released proposed regulations under the ACA requiring many employers to provide health insurance that offers female employees free contraceptive services. While faith groups directly involved in religious ministry (such as houses of worship) were exempted from the requirement, religiously affiliated nonprofits (such as hospitals, universities and charities) and for-profit businesses whose owners opposed some or all contraception on religious grounds were not.
Efforts by the administration and religious groups to find a compromise for nonprofits largely failed, and many religious nonprofits and businesses sued, arguing that requiring them, even indirectly, to provide free birth control violates First Amendment protections of religious liberty as well as federal law.
As the debate over the mandate continues, here are five questions and answers about the controversy: Read More →
One important way many Americans stay informed about politics, including the 2016 elections, is through conversations with others. About seven-in-ten U.S. adults talk with others about politics at least a few times a month, according to a 2014 survey by the Pew Research Center. But a new analysis of survey data finds that whom they talk with most often about the subject varies a great deal between men and women.
Those who talk about politics at least a few times a month were asked to identify the three people with whom they discuss this topic the most, and to describe their relationship to these people. It turns out that women are more likely than men to say their conversations about politics are most often with a parent or child, while men are more likely than women to rely on people outside the family.
As might be expected, younger adults are more likely than older people to say they talk politics with their parents, while older adults are more likely than young adults to name their children.
On Aug. 6, 1945, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, killing tens of thousands of people – many instantly, others from the effects of radiation. Death estimates range from 66,000 to 150,000.
This first use of a nuclear weapon by any nation has long divided Americans and Japanese. Americans have consistently approved of this attack and have said it was justified. The Japanese have not. But opinions are changing: Americans are less and less supportive of their use of atomic weapons, and the Japanese are more and more opposed.
In 1945, a Gallup poll immediately after the bombing found that 85% of Americans approved of using the new atomic weapon on Japanese cities. In 1991, according to a Detroit Free Press survey conducted in both Japan and the U.S., 63% of Americans said the atomic bomb attacks on Japan were a justified means of ending the war, while only 29% thought the action was unjustified. At the same time, only 29% of Japanese said the bombing was justified, while 64% thought it was unwarranted. Read More →
The past two years have seen Dean Baquet become the first black executive editor of The New York Times and Lester Holt become the first black solo anchor of a weeknight network news program. But minorities are still underrepresented at U.S. news organizations, especially when it comes to the places that would-be journalists traditionally try to break into the business: smaller local TV and newspaper outlets.
Although minorities (including black, Hispanic, Asian American, Native American and multiracial populations) make up over a third of the U.S. adult population (35%), they make up only 22% of the local television news workforce, according to a study by the Radio Television Digital News Association. The figure is even lower for daily newspapers, where only 13% of newsroom employees are minorities, according to an annual survey of newsroom employment by the American Society of News Editors (ASNE). These figures have changed little over the past two decades. Read More →