July 22, 2016

Few American women have broken the glass ceiling of diplomacy

Since the beginning of U.S. diplomatic relations with the rest of the world, American ambassadors have overwhelmingly been men, an imbalance that speaks to a persistent diversity challenge within the U.S. Foreign Service. The numbers make it clear. Over 4,600 U.S. ambassadors have served in foreign countries since the founding of the nation – and only 9% of them have been women.

A Pew Research Center analysis of data from the American Foreign Service Association of the 193 United Nations member states and Kosovo finds that in 27 of the 191 countries with which the U.S. has had diplomatic relations, a woman has never been appointed ambassador. These countries span every region and include Canada and Israel as well as the Muslim-majority nations of Afghanistan, Bahrain, Iran and Saudi Arabia. For the two countries to which the largest number of ambassadors have been sent (74 each) — Spain and Russia — none has ever been a woman. South Sudan, the world’s newest country, is the only country in the world to which all U.S. ambassadors have been women (two to date).

The countries with the highest number of women ambassadors tend to be those less central to U.S. foreign policy. The record for number of women ambassadors from the U.S. (seven) is held by the tiny European nation of Luxembourg. And 10 countries – Barbados, Burundi, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malta, Micronesia, Nepal, Niger, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands – have had six female ambassadors from the U.S. over the course of their diplomatic relations with America. Meanwhile, many countries of greater strategic importance to American foreign policy, such as China, Germany and Saudi Arabia, have never had a woman as ambassador.

Historically, some regions have had a higher share of female appointees. The highest share is in South and Central Asia (17%), followed by sub-Saharan Africa at 16% and East Asia and the Pacific with 14%. In Europe and Eurasia, the Western Hemisphere, and the Middle East – only 6% of ambassadorships have ever been held by women, below the global share of 9%.

Currently, about a third (36%) of assigned American ambassadors are women. Fully 50% of U.S. ambassadorial posts in South and Central Asia are filled by women, making it the only region that reaches gender parity. Women are posted abroad in five nations in the region – the former Soviet states of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, as well as Bangladesh and Nepal.

After South and Central Asia, the next largest shares of U.S. women ambassadors are found in the East Asia and the Pacific region and in sub-Saharan Africa where roughly four-in-ten current ambassadors are women.

Topics: Federal Government, Foreign Affairs and Policy

  1. Photo of Hani Zainulbhai

    is a research analyst focusing on global attitudes at Pew Research Center.


  1. Anonymous1 year ago

    Very useful data! Thanks.

  2. Anonymous1 year ago

    And imagine if we were to try and parse out women of color….would we get to even 1%? And people of color in general? The DoS has a serious problem with diversity and if you factor out all those “horribly inept and unfair” political appointees the numbers, at least under the Obama admin, become even worse (i.e. political appointees have increased both the number of women and minorities in the ambassadorial ranks over the past 8 years) – left to its own devices the DoS still represents a white old boys network…

  3. Anonymous1 year ago

    A breakdown of political appointees vs. career appointees would have been helpful. Notwithstanding, Ms. Zainulbhai failed to mention that the current percentage of ambassadors who are female is probably roughly equal to the percentage of women in the senior ranks of the State Department’s career Senior Foreign Service.

  4. Anonymous1 year ago

    This article touches on an important issue, but fails to take into account how many of the women appointed as ambassador have been career members of the US Foreign a Service, as opposed to political appointees to these positions, which are at peak numbers currently. Once that is factored in, it is clear there are even fewer opportunities for female foreign service officers and that women are way underrepresented in the senior ranks. Margot Carrington, Minister-Counselor for Public Affairs, US Embassy Tokyo

    1. Anonymous1 year ago

      by my count, there have been a total of 438 women to serve as ambassadors to countries and international organizations. 292 have been career, 146 have been political (67% vs 33%). Obama has appointed 137 women: 102 career, 35 political (75% vs 25%).