April 20, 2016

What different styles of head coverings say about Israeli Jewish men

What you wear can say a lot about who you are and what you believe. In Israel, for instance, the type of kippa – or lack thereof – worn by an Israeli Jewish man often is strongly correlated with his religious identity as well as some political views.

These skullcaps (also known by their Yiddish name, yarmulkes), are regularly worn by about one-third of Israel’s Jewish men, especially the religiously observant. They come in several basic styles, with some more favored by particular Jewish subgroups than others.

What different types of kippot say about Israeli Jewish men

Among Israeli men who say they usually wear a large black fabric kippa, a majority identify as Haredi (also known as ultra-Orthodox) Jews (58%). By contrast, most of those who wear a black crocheted or knitted kippa (59%) say they are Masorti (“traditional”) Jews. And small black fabric kippot (the plural of kippa) as well as colored or patterned crocheted kippot are particularly common among Dati (“religious,” sometimes called “modern Orthodox”) Jews.

Meanwhile, among Israeli men who do not usually wear a head covering, 73% are Hiloni (“secular”) Jews, and about a quarter (27%) are Masorti (“traditional”).

The vast majority of Haredi and Dati men wear a yarmulke or some other kind of head covering (in public, some Haredim prefer a fedora or a shtreimel, an Eastern European fur hat). Masorti men are more divided: 42% routinely wear a head covering, and 57% do not. Virtually no Hilonim wear a religious head covering. (Another Fact Tank post details the differences among these four major Jewish subgroups in Israel.)

While wearing a kippa in everyday life is primarily a statement of religious identity, in Israel, certain types of kippot can indirectly be strong clues about some of the wearer’s political views. In fact, the term “kippa sruga” (knitted kippa) is sometimes used to describe “religious Zionists,” observant Jews who see the Jewish people as religiously entitled to territory in the region.

The data support such an association. Among men who wear colored or patterned knitted kippot, a majority (63%) say the term “Zionist” describes them very accurately. By contrast, most of those who wear a large black fabric kippa (58%) say the “Zionist” label does not describe them accurately; this group is made up largely of Haredim, some of whom have long been ambivalent about the Jewish state.

Majorities of those who wear a colored or patterned knitted or crocheted kippa agree with the statement “Arabs should be expelled or transferred from Israel” (65%) and say peaceful coexistence for Israel and an independent Palestinian state is not possible (58%). Likewise, about seven-in-ten men who wear a black crocheted kippa agree that Arabs should be expelled or transferred, including 45% who strongly agree. And fully three-quarters of those who wear a black crocheted kippa (75%) say a two-state solution is not possible.

When asked about their political ideology, most Israeli Jewish men who wear a black crocheted kippa (70%) or a colored or patterned crocheted kippa (58%) say they are on the political right. Meanwhile, most Jewish men who wear a small black fabric kippa (65%) identify as political centrists, as do most Israeli Jewish men who do not wear a head covering at all (55%). Among those who do not wear a head covering, 12% describe themselves as being on the political left – still a small minority, but much bigger than the virtually nonexistent share of men who do wear kippot who identify with the left.

For a full breakdown of the views of men who wear different types of head coverings on several issues, see the tables in this PDF.

Topics: Religion and Society, Middle East and North Africa, Religious Beliefs and Practices, Jews and Judaism

  1. Photo of Michael Lipka

    is a senior editor focusing on religion at Pew Research Center.

  2. Photo of Angelina E. Theodorou

    is a research analyst focusing on religion at Pew Research Center.


  1. Ch Hoffman1 year ago

    /american orthodox are content with choosing between Mets and Yankee baseball caps

  2. Anonymous1 year ago

    Excellent job on this survey. I was wondering if you could do the same for Jewish women in Israel who wear head coverings whether it be a wig, snood, scarf or a har or not at all.

    1. Michael Lipka1 year ago

      Thank you for your kind words. We did ask women this question – here is a link to that section in the main survey report: pewforum.org/2016/03/08/jewish-b….

      Michael Lipka

  3. Anonymous1 year ago

    Quite precise.

  4. Anonymous1 year ago

    How much time and money was spent for this important study?! It’s pilpul.
    How many people could have been fed or clothed with this same money?

  5. Anonymous1 year ago

    Excellent article covering what usually is not known by American Jewish men.

  6. Anonymous1 year ago

    There are more options than that.
    Kippot can be made of suede and velvet and satin, different parts of the Haredi populations wear kippot with a different number of segments (so I’ve heard)
    The Breslever kippa is missing – full size, white with a pompom and slogan so very hard to miss.
    The crocheted ones tend to vary in size, often the larger the kippa is the more religious the wearer.

    1. Anonymous1 year ago

      Most folks who wear a Yerushalmi kippah (like the Breslov pattern, but often without the נ נח mantra on the brim) are more likely to be anti-Zionist, as it is mainly associated with the membership of the Eida HaChareidis. On the other hand, I don’t think that material is as important as a descriptor for the various types of black kippot, as that often adheres to personal preference rather than the segment of the population.

      Segments (4 or 6) is also apparently mostly related to personal preference, although Chassidim will generally tend towards 6-part construction for mystical reasons (I’m non mystically inclined myself, so I’m somewhat derisive of that rationale).

    2. Michael Lipka1 year ago

      This analysis only includes those types of kippot with a substantial sample size for separate analysis. Here are the results for all Israeli Jewish men. For example, 1% say they wear a large white kippa and 1% say they wear a fedora or shtreimel: pewforum.org/2016/03/08/jewish-b….

      Michael Lipka

  7. Bella Gotie1 year ago

    !Who is the author of data visualization? Nice work!

    1. Michael Lipka1 year ago

      Pew Research Center staffers Peter Bell and Bill Webster collaborated on the graphic. Thank you for your kind words!

  8. Raphaël Freeman1 year ago

    Crocheted not knitted. You can’t knit a kipa!