University of Michigan researcher Mansoor Moaddel explains the methods behind the survey and how the findings differ (or don't) by gender, religion, age and education.
Religious hostilities increased in every major region of the world except the Americas. The sharpest increase was in the Middle East and North Africa, a region still feeling the effects of the Arab Spring. And China edged into the “high” category for the first time.
Among the world’s 25 most populous countries, Egypt, Indonesia, Russia, Pakistan and Burma (Myanmar) stand out as having the most restrictions on religion when both government restrictions and social hostilities are taken into account.
Even as publics in many of the surveyed Muslim-majority countries express a clear preference for women to dress conservatively, many also say women should be able to decide for themselves what to wear.