Births have overtaken immigration as the main driver of the dynamic growth in the U.S. Hispanic population, especially among the largest of all Hispanic groups -- Mexican-Americans.
The 2010 Census counted 50.5 million Hispanics in the United States. Hispanics now account for 16.3% of the total population. Among children ages 17 and younger, there were 17.1 million Latinos in 2010, or 23.1% of this age group. Overall, racial and ethnic minorities accounted for 91.7% of the nation's growth over the decade.
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This statistical profile of the foreign-born population is based on Pew Hispanic Center tabulations of the Census Bureau’s 2009 American Community Survey.
As of March 2010, 11.2 million unauthorized immigrants were living in the U.S., virtually unchanged from a year earlier and remaining well below the population's peak of 12 million in 2007. The number of unauthorized immigrants in the nation's workforce (8 million) also has not changed in the past year.
Immigrants are gaining jobs at a time when native-born workers continue to sustain losses. Foreign-born workers job gains may be the result of greater flexibility with regard to wages and hours of work or greater mobility. But despite rising employment, immigrants have experienced a sharp decline in earnings as well as a still substantial net loss in jobs.
The annual inflow of unauthorized immigrants to the U.S. was nearly two-thirds smaller in the March 2007 to March 2009 period than it had been from March 2000 to March 2005. This decline contributed to an overall 8% reduction in the unauthorized immigrant population, which fell to 11.1 million in 2009 from 12 million in 2007. The decrease represents the first significant reversal in the growth of this population over the past two decades.
Unauthorized immigrants comprise about 4% of the adult population, but their children make up a much larger share of both the newborn population (8%) and the overall child population (7% of those younger than age 18) in this country.
The flow of immigrants from Mexico to the United States has declined sharply since mid-decade, but there is no evidence of an increase during this period in the number of Mexican-born migrants returning home from the U.S.
The flow of immigrants from Mexico to the U.S. has declined sharply since mid-decade, but there is no apparent increase in the number of Mexican-born migrants returning home.