This report was written by Rakesh Kochhar, senior researcher, and Mohamad Moslimani, research assistant.

Editorial guidance for the report was provided by Mark Hugo Lopez, director, race and ethnicity research, and Kim Parker, director, social trends research.

Guidance on the communications strategy and outreach was provided by Tanya Arditi, senior communications manager.

The report was number checked by Kiley Hurst, research analyst; Ziyao Tian, research associate; and Gracie Martinez, senior administrative associate. Shannon Greenwood, senior digital producer, produced the report. David Kent, senior copy editor, copy edited the report. Charts were designed by John Carlo Mandapat, information graphics designer.

Find related reports online at https://www.pewresearch.org/topic/economy-work/income-wealth-poverty/.