Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder. This study was funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts, with generous support from the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative DAF, an advised fund of the Silicon Valley Community Foundation; the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; the Henry Luce Foundation; The Wallace H. Coulter Foundation; The Dirk and Charlene Kabcenell Foundation; The Long Family Foundation; Lu-Hebert Fund; Gee Family Foundation; Joseph Cotchett; the Julian Abdey and Sabrina Moyle Charitable Fund; and Nanci Nishimura.

The accompanying video clip was made possible by The Pew Charitable Trusts, with generous support from The Sobrato Family Foundation and The Long Family Foundation.

We would also like to thank the Leaders Forum for its thought leadership and valuable assistance in helping make this study possible.

This report was written by Luis Noe-Bustamante, Research Associate, Lauren Mora, Research Assistant, and Neil G. Ruiz, Associate Director of Race and Ethnicity Research.

Many individuals contributed to this study’s data collection and methodology. The authors are grateful to Sono Shah, Computational Social Scientist of the Center’s Data Labs; Laura Silver, Senior Researcher; Mohamad Moslimani, Research Assistant; Carolyne Im, Research Assistant; and Sunny Shao, former Research Associate, for tirelessly observing focus groups, coding the transcripts and helping in analyzing the results. Pew Research Center is also grateful to Andre Sanabia, Collen McCauley, Shawnna Mullenax and Valerie Ojeda-Avitia from PSB Insights and to Grace Chiu and Patrick Cahill from GC Global for their many contributions to this project.

The report and the accompanying video clip were produced by Shannon Greenwood, Digital Producer. The communications and outreach strategy for the report, as well as editorial advice on all accompanying research products, was provided by Hannah Klein, Communications Manager, and Gar Meng Leong, Communications Associate.

Editorial guidance was provided by Mark Hugo Lopez, Director, Race and Ethnicity Research. The report was number checked by Mohamad Moslimani, Research Assistant. David Kent, Senior Copy Editor, copy edited the report.

Pew Research Center is grateful to a panel of expert advisers who provided guidance at all stages of this report: Yến Lê Espiritu, Distinguished Professor of Ethnic Studies at University of California, San Diego; Devesh Kapur, Starr Foundation Professor of South Asian Studies at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies; Anthony Christian Ocampo, Professor of Sociology at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; Karthick Ramakrishnan, Professor of Public Policy at the University of California, Riverside; Janelle Wong, Professor of American Studies and Asian American Studies at the University of Maryland; and Yang Sao Xiong, Assistant Professor of Social Work and Asian American Studies at University of Wisconsin-Madison.

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