This report was written by Christine Tamir, Research Analyst and Monica Anderson, Associate Director of Research.

Editorial guidance was provided by Neil G. Ruiz, Associate Director of Global Migration and Demography Research; Jeffrey S. Passel, Senior Demographer; Kiana Cox, Research Associate; Tanya Arditi, Communications Manager; Julia O’Hanlon, Communications Associate; and Mark Hugo Lopez, Director of Global Migration and Demography Research.

This report was number-checked by Luis Noe-Bustamante, Research Analyst; Lauren Mora, Research Assistant; and Mohamad Moslimani, Research Assistant. Shannon Greenwood, Digital Producer, produced the report. David Kent, Senior Copy Editor, copy edited the report. Charts were designed by Michael Keegan, Senior Information Graphics Designer. Find related reports online at