An estimated 810,000 Hispanics with origins from Spain – that is, those who are immigrants from or who trace their family ancestry to Spain – resided in the United States in 2017, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey. Spaniards in this statistical profile are people who self-identified as Hispanics with origins from Spain.
Spaniards are the ninth-largest population of Hispanic origin living in the United States, accounting for 1% of the U.S. Hispanic population in 2017. Since 2010, the population with origins from Spain has increased 15%, growing from 707,000 to 810,000 over the period. At the same time, the foreign-born population with origins from Spain living in the U.S. grew by 41%, from 91,000 in 2010 to 129,000 in 2017. By comparison, Mexicans, the nation’s largest Hispanic origin group, constituted 36.6 million, or 62%, of the Hispanic population in 2017.
U.S. population with origins from Spain, 2010-2017
The following key facts compare demographic and economic characteristics of the population of Hispanics with origins from Spain in the U.S. with the characteristics of all U.S. Hispanics and the U.S. population overall. It is based on Pew Research Center tabulations of the 2017 American Community Survey. Key facts include:
- Among Hispanics in the U.S., about 33% are foreign born, compared with 16% of U.S. Spaniards.
- About 48% of foreign-born Spaniards have been in the U.S. for over 20 years, and 46% of foreign-born Spaniards are U.S. citizens.
- About 16% of U.S. Hispanics ages 25 and older have obtained at least a bachelor’s degree, compared with 36% of Spaniards.
- Among Spaniards ages 25 and older, the U.S. born are less likely than the foreign born to have a bachelor’s degree or higher (32% vs. 49%).
- Among U.S. Hispanics, the median annual personal earnings for those ages 16 and older was $25,000, compared with $36,000 for Spaniards.
- Looking at full-time, year-round workers, U.S. Hispanics earned less than Spaniards ($34,000 vs. $50,000).
- The share of U.S. Hispanics who live in poverty (19%) is greater than the share among Spaniards (11%).
- About 11% of U.S.-born Spaniards live in poverty, as do 12% of foreign-born Spaniards.
- The rate of homeownership among U.S. Hispanics (47%) is lower than the rate for Spaniards overall (63%).
- Among Spaniards in the U.S., the homeownership rate is higher for the U.S. born than the foreign born (64% vs. 59%).
Top states of residence
- The Hispanic population with origins from Spain is concentrated in California (20%), Texas (12%) and New Mexico (8%).
- The median age of U.S. Hispanics (29) is lower than that of Spaniards (36) and the U.S. population (38).
- U.S. Hispanics ages 18 and older are about as likely to be married (46%) as Spaniards (47%).
- Among Spaniards ages 18 and older, those who are foreign born are more likely to be married than the U.S.-born (61% vs. 44%).
- Some 7% of U.S. Hispanic women ages 15 to 44 gave birth in the 12 months prior to the July 2017 American Community Survey. That was higher than the rate for women with origins from Spain (4%).
- About 70% of U.S. Hispanics ages 5 and older speak only English at home or speak English at least “very well,” compared with 93% of Spaniards.
- Similarly, 64% of Hispanic adults are English proficient, as are 92% of Spaniard adults.
Download the data
Other U.S. Hispanic fact sheets
- Facts on U.S. Latinos
- Origin group-specific fact sheets:
Pew Research Center’s fact sheets on U.S. Latinos and the accompanying blog post examine the Latino population of the United States overall and by its 15 largest origin groups — Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Salvadorans, Cubans, Dominicans, Guatemalans, Colombians, Hondurans, Spaniards, Ecuadorians, Peruvians, Nicaraguans, Venezuelans, Argentines and Panamanians. These sheets provide detailed geographic, demographic and economic characteristics for all Latinos and for each Latino origin group. They are based on Pew Research Center tabulations of the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2010, 2015 and 2017 American Community Survey (ACS) and the 2000 U.S. decennial census.
The ACS is the largest household survey in the United States, with a sample of more than 3 million addresses. It covers the topics previously covered in the long form of the decennial census. The ACS is designed to provide estimates of the size and characteristics of the resident population, which includes persons living in households and group quarters. For more details about the ACS, including the sampling strategy and associated error, see the 2010, 2015 or 2017 American Community Survey’s Accuracy Statement provided by the U.S. Census Bureau.
The specific data sources for these fact sheets are the 1% samples of the 2010, 2015 and 2017 American Community Survey (ACS) Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) provided by the University of Minnesota and the 5% sample of the 2000 decennial census. IPUMS assigns uniform codes, to the extent possible, to data collected by the decennial census and the ACS from 1850 to 2017. For more information about IPUMS, including variable definition and sampling error, please visit the “IPUMS Documentation and User Guide.”
Due to differences in the way in which IPUMS and Census Bureau adjust income data and assign poverty status, data provided on these topics might differ from data that are provided by the Census Bureau.
For the purposes of these fact sheets, the foreign born include those persons who identified as naturalized citizens or non-citizens and are living in the 50 states or the District of Columbia. Persons born in Puerto Rico and other outlying territories of the U.S. and who are now living in the 50 states or the District of Columbia are included in the U.S.-born population.