Sep 12, 2016 12:06 pm

Many countries allow child marriage

Almost all of the world’s nations have laws specifying at what age a couple can marry, and in most of these countries, those under the age of 18 are allowed to wed. Indeed, at least 117 nations (including the United States) allow children to marry, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of data on 198 countries and territories from the U.S. State Department and United Nations.

While in many countries the age of 18 legally marks the end of childhood, marriageable age does not always correspond – legally or otherwise – with the age of majority. Ostensibly, most countries (153 of 198) require that people who want to marry be adults (18 years or older). But many of these same nations have some kind of exemption to this requirement. For instance, in Australia, if a person is at least 18, their spouse can (with judicial approval) be as young as 16. And in many other countries, such as Iraq, Jamaica and Uruguay, children can marry with parental permission.  Read More

Topics: Family and Relationships, Household and Family Structure, Marriage and Divorce, National and Cultural Identity, Teens and Youth

Sep 12, 2016 10:04 am

Already-low voter satisfaction with choice of candidates falls even further

Voter satisfaction with the choice of presidential candidates, already at a two-decade low, has declined even further. A new survey finds that just a third of registered voters say they are very or fairly satisfied with the choices, while 63% say they are not too or not at all satisfied. That represents a 7-percentage-point drop since June in the share of voters expressing satisfaction with their candidate choices.

This marks the first time in six presidential contests since 1992 that positive views of the choice of candidates have shown a significant decline over the course of the campaign (no comparative data are available for the 2000 campaign).

The latest national survey by Pew Research Center, conducted Aug. 23-Sept. 2 among 1,201 adults, including 947 registered voters, finds that unhappiness with this year’s choices crosses partisan lines: Just 36% of Republican and Republican-leaning registered voters, and 35% of Democrats and Democratic leaners, say they are satisfied with their choices.  Read More

Topics: 2016 Election, Elections and Campaigns, Political Attitudes and Values, Political Polarization, U.S. Political Parties, Voting Issues

Sep 8, 2016 2:09 pm

Key facts about how the U.S. Hispanic population is changing

The U.S. Hispanic population reached 57 million in 2015, but a drop-off in immigration from Latin America and a declining birth rate among Hispanic women has curbed overall growth of the population and slowed the dispersion of Hispanics through the U.S.

From the onset of the Great Recession in 2007 through 2014, the U.S. Hispanic population had an annual average growth rate of 2.8%, compared with an average 4.4% growth each year from 2000 to 2007. As a result, in terms of growth rate, Hispanics – once the nation’s fastest-growing population – have now slipped behind Asians, whose population grew at an average annual rate of 3.4% between 2007 and 2014.

Here are key takeaways from our new report on the geography of the U.S. Hispanic population, which includes fact sheets and interactive county, metropolitan and state maps. (Data on Hispanic eligible voters are available in our state and congressional district interactives and fact sheets.)

1Despite slowing growth rates, Latinos still accounted for more than half (54%) of total U.S. population growth from 2000 to 2014. Hispanics drove at least half of overall population growth in 524 counties that had at least 1,000 Latinos in 2014. In these counties, Hispanic population growth accounted for 54% or more of total growth. The South accounted for 46% of these counties, compared with 24% in the West, 18% in the Midwest and 12% in the Northeast.  Read More

Category: 5 Facts

Topics: Demographics, Economic Recession, Hispanic/Latino Demographics, Latin America, Migration, Population Geography, Population Trends

Sep 8, 2016 9:15 am

More than half of smartphone users get news alerts, but few get them often

Many news organizations have recently ramped up their use of mobile news alerts – notifications that pop up on mobile phones, alerting people of breaking news or major headlines. They see this as an opportunity to both inform and reconnect with audiences over the course of the day. And, with about seven-in-ten Americans (72%) getting news on mobile devices, these organizations clearly see a potential audience for alerts.

More than half (55%) of U.S. smartphone users get news alerts on their phones’ screens, but getting them frequently is still fairly rare. Just 13% of smartphone users say they often receive news alerts, according to new Pew Research Center data. And only about half of those who ever get them click through to the full story or search for more information (47%, or 26% of smartphone users overall).

Those who follow the news all or most of the time are somewhat more likely to get smartphone news alerts, but the differences are not huge. Nearly six-in-ten smartphone users who follow the news closely (58%) ever get news alerts, compared with 52% of those who follow the news less often. There is a somewhat greater difference in the tendency of these two groups to seek out the details of a story upon receiving an alert: 53% of those who closely follow the news say they do so, compared with 42% of those who follow the news less closely.

Read More

Topics: Digital Media, Mobile, News Audience Trends and Attitudes, News Content Analysis, News Interest, News Media Trends, News Sources

Sep 8, 2016 7:00 am

5 key things to know about the margin of error in election polls

In presidential elections, even the smallest changes in horse-race poll results seem to become imbued with deep meaning. But they are often overstated. Pollsters disclose a margin of error so that consumers can have an understanding of how much precision they can reasonably expect. But cool-headed reporting on polls is harder than it looks, because some of the better-known statistical rules of thumb that a smart consumer might think apply are more nuanced than they seem. In other words, as is so often true in life, it’s complicated.

Here are some tips on how to think about a poll’s margin of error and what it means for the different kinds of things we often try to learn from survey data.

1What is the margin of error anyway?

Because surveys only talk to a sample of the population, we know that the result probably won’t exactly match the “true” result that we would get if we interviewed everyone in the population. The margin of sampling error describes how close we can reasonably expect a survey result to fall relative to the true population value. A margin of error of plus or minus 3 percentage points at the 95% confidence level means that if we fielded the same survey 100 times, we would expect the result to be within 3 percentage points of the true population value 95 of those times.

The margin of error that pollsters customarily report describes the amount of variability we can expect around an individual candidate’s level of support. For example, in the accompanying graphic, a hypothetical Poll A shows the Republican candidate with 48% support. A plus or minus 3 percentage point margin of error would mean that 48% Republican support is within the range of what we would expect if the true level of support in the full population lies somewhere 3 points in either direction – i.e., between 45% and 51%.  Read More

Category: 5 Facts

Topics: 2016 Election, Elections and Campaigns, Research Methods, Telephone Survey Methods, Web Survey Methods

Sep 7, 2016 11:22 am

13% of Americans don’t use the internet. Who are they?

For many Americans, going online is an important way to connect with friends and family, shop, get news and search for information. Yet today, 13% of U.S. adults do not use the internet, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of survey data.

The size of this group has changed little over the past three years, despite recent government and social service programs to encourage internet adoption. But that 13% figure is substantially lower than in 2000, when Pew Research Center first began to study the social impact of technology. That year, nearly half (48%) of American adults did not use the internet. (The 2015 figure of 15% is not statistically different from the current figure.)

A 2013 survey from the Center found some key reasons that some people do not use the internet. A third of non-internet users (34%) did not go online because they had no interest in doing so or did not think the internet was relevant to their lives. Another 32% of non-internet users said the internet was too difficult to use, including 8% of this group who said they were “too old to learn.” Cost was also a barrier for some adults who were offline – 19% cited the expense of internet service or owning a computer.

The latest Pew Research Center analysis also shows that internet non-adoption is correlated to a number of demographic variables, including age, educational attainment, household income and community type.

Read More

Topics: Demographics, Digital Divide, Education, Generations and Age, Income, Internet Activities, Technology Adoption

Sep 7, 2016 7:00 am

House seats rarely flip from one party to the other

With Election Day 2016 a little over two months away, many political analysts are projecting Democrats to gain seats in both the House and Senate. But winning the 30 seats they need to wrest control of the House from the Republicans is generally seen as a longer shot than the four or five Senate seats they’d need to lead that chamber (depending on whether or not Hillary Clinton is elected president and Tim Kaine, as vice president and president of the Senate, has a tie-breaking vote).

Shifts of that magnitude are uncommon but not unprecedented: In three of the past 12 two-year election cycles, one party has racked up a net gain of 30 seats or more (most recently in 2010, when the Republicans had a net gain of 63 seats). So we thought it was worthwhile to take a closer look at the circumstances under which House seats do, and don’t, switch from Republican to Democratic or vice versa. (In redistricting years, we excluded House districts that were either newly created and those so radically redrawn that no incumbent ran in them.)

Read More

Topics: 2016 Election, Congress, Political Party Affiliation, U.S. Political Parties

Sep 6, 2016 1:59 pm

Fewer refugees entering Europe than in 2015, but asylum backlog still growing

One year after the surge of 1.3 million refugees who entered Europe in 2015 was at its peak, the number of new arrivals this summer has declined sharply compared with last year. But at the same time, the backlog of unprocessed asylum applications has reached more than 1 million and continues to grow, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of data from the United Nations and European Union.

In summer 2015, thousands of refugees from Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq and other countries entered Europe daily through Greece and Italy. Germany responded to the humanitarian crisis by opening its borders, allowing refugees to make their way north and west from the Greek islands. In all, Europe received its greatest annual number of asylum applicants since 1985, the first year for which data from Eurostat, the EU’s statistical agency, are available.

In 2016, people have continued to cross the eastern Mediterranean into Europe, but in much smaller numbers. However, migration could again surge if an agreement between the EU and Turkey collapses following a coup attempt in Turkey. Migration from Turkey into Greece – the transit corridor used by most of 2015’s 1.3 million migrants – largely stopped once the EU-Turkey deal was put in place in March 2016. This summer, an average of about a hundred migrants has landed on Greece’s shores daily, down from the thousands who arrived every day last summer, according to data from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

Read More

Topics: Europe, Immigration, International Governments and Institutions, International Organizations, Middle East and North Africa, Migration, Sub-Saharan Africa, Western Europe

Sep 2, 2016 11:17 am

For many voters, it’s not which presidential candidate they’re for but which they’re against

American voters are generally skeptical that either Hillary Clinton or Donald Trump would make a “great” or “good” president. But another dynamic in the 2016 presidential election is the significant share of voters who say their vote is based more on which candidate they are against rather than which one they are for.

This stands in contrast to recent elections in years without an incumbent presidential candidate. In both 2008 and 2000, half or more of each candidate’s supporters said their vote was more a vote for their candidate than a vote against the opposing party’s candidate.

In a recent Pew Research Center survey, 53% of Clinton supporters say they consider their vote more in support of her, while 46% say their vote is more against Trump. Negative voting is somewhat more prevalent among Trump supporters: 53% say their vote is primarily against Clinton. Fewer (44%) say their vote is in support of Trump.

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Topics: 2016 Election, Elections and Campaigns, Political Attitudes and Values, Political Party Affiliation, Political Polarization, U.S. Political Parties, Voting Issues

Sep 1, 2016 11:00 am

10 facts about American workers

More than 150 million Americans are part of the U.S. workforce, and many of them (but not all) will spend the Labor Day national holiday away from their desks, cash registers and workbenches. We can’t predict how workers will use their day off, but we do know a fair amount about who they are, what they do and the U.S. working environment in general.

1A Long Downward Slide for UnionsOver the past three decades, the share of American workers who are union members has fallen by about half. Union membership peaked in 1954 at nearly 35% of all U.S. wage and salary workers, but in 2015 the unionization rate was just 11.1%. However, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics the actual number of union members has risen in recent years, from 14.4 million in 2012 to 14.8 million last year.

The biggest decline in union representation from 2000 to 2015 was in construction and extraction occupations, from 23.8% to 17.2%. Unionization actually has risen, albeit slightly and from low bases, in a few occupational groups: In legal occupations, for instance, the unionization rate rose from 5.1% in 2000 to 5.6% last year.

Read More

Category: 5 Facts

Topics: Business and Labor, Educational Attainment, Gender, Generations and Age, Income, Income Inequality, Work and Employment