April 14, 2015

On Equal Pay Day, key facts about the gender pay gap

Today marks “Equal Pay Day,” the date that symbolizes how far into the new year the average American woman would have to work to earn what the average American man did in the previous year.

Both men and women see inequalities in the workplace – 77% of women and 63% of men said “this country needs to continue making changes to give men and women equality in the workplace,” according to a Pew Research Center survey last fall.

According to the White House, full-time working women earn 77% of what their male counterparts earn. This means that women have to work approximately 60 extra days, or about three months, to earn what men did by the end of the previous year. However, our own estimate, which is based on hourly earnings of both full- and part-time workers, finds women earn 84 percent of what men earn. Based on our estimate, it would take approximately 40 days, or until the end of February, for women to earn what men had by the end of last year.

But for young women, the wage gap is even smaller – at 93 percent – meaning they caught up to their same-aged male counterparts by roughly the last week in January of this year.

As our video explains, the estimated 16-cent pay gap today has narrowed from 36 cents in 1980. Back then, the average woman would have had to work approximately 90 days, roughly into the beginning of May, in order to catch up with men’s earnings from the year before.

In spite of its narrowing, the gender pay gap persists. Why is this? In our survey, women were more likely to say they had taken career interruptions to care for their family. And research has shown that these types of interruptions can have an impact on long-term earnings. Roughly four-in-ten mothers say they have taken a significant amount of time off from work (39%) or reduced their work hours (42%) to care for a child or other family member. Roughly a quarter (27%) say they have quit work altogether to take care of these familial responsibilities. (Fewer men say the same. For example, just 24% of fathers say they have taken a significant amount of time off to care for a child or other family member.)

Even though women have increased their presence in higher-paying jobs traditionally dominated by men, such as professional and managerial positions, women as a whole continue to work in lower-paying occupations than men do. And some part of the pay gap may also be due to gender discrimination – women are about twice as likely as men to say they had been discriminated against at work because of their gender (18% vs. 10%).

Note: This post was updated on April 14, 2015.

Topics: Gender, Work and Employment

  1. is a research analyst focusing on Hispanic, social and demographic trends at Pew Research Center.

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202 Comments

  1. zach2 weeks ago

    seriously missing some very key points. Video is completely smothered by very generalized numbers with little research.

    Reply
  2. Diana1 month ago

    I am a woman with a degree in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.
    After 8 years working at a computer company I became an engineering manager. After a couple more years, my group was faced with downsizing. I had worked as a manager as well as a lab manager and other roles. My peers had only worked in single roles. I was given the highest review in my group, but told that I would be happier in a lab role (non-management). My peers were kept as managers and I was demoted, despite my greater performance and responsibilities.

    As a manager (I had been one 3 times in previous jobs), I was told that some of my staff earned 30-40 percent more than me, due to being hired into the company during a strong period, where promotions were small, but bounties were big.

    I left the group who paid my (male) subordinates 30-40% more than their manager and started anew in a new group, but I was too late. More males were taking their position and I was a smurf, my past experience having no bearing.

    I eventually got pushed down to a low enough level so my new boss could put me in the pile when cutbacks came around again. In my business group, more than 20% of the layoffs were women.

    It’s not just equal pay that women fight for, it’s equal opportunities within at least equal performance. I lost my management job because I took on too many roles, which were pushed upon me. My peers were lauded for their performance in half as much responsibility.

    All I want to see is gender-blindness now. Isn’t it about time?

    Reply
    1. ryan3 weeks ago

      20% of the layoffs were women …. doesn’t that mean that 80% were men. I guess they need to fire more females…. you know, to be fair.

      Reply
    2. Justin Smith3 weeks ago

      It kinda sounds like you let people push you around. Sometimes you just have to know what you are worth and not take the first offer. It just seems like you are enabling employers to take advantage of you and underpay. Let some other chump take a job for less than his peers. Research and know how much you are worth and don’t take a job that tries to underpay you.

      Reply
    3. Roger Periwinkle3 weeks ago

      Hmm so of those sacked, 20% were women?? What were the other 80%.. men?? You explained why the other people got paid more, they signed their contracts at a different time when conditions were different. If you were as valuable to the company as you make out they would have kept you as manager because it would have been more cost effective.

      Maybe your man hating attitude and your feminist sense of entitlement created human relations issues within your office, meaning you were better off in the lab then managing. One can’t always blame others for their short comings.. sometimes the problems are intrinsic.

      Reply
      1. maroc2 weeks ago

        I didn’t read any evidence of man-hating in the comment but do infer misogyny in yours. I’m guessing that the 20 percent may have been large given the smaller percentage of women in the total group. Consider the possibility that a “sense of entitlement” might guide the perspective of many men who are very quick to dismiss any complaints from women on the issue of equal pay.

        Reply
        1. Kelly6 days ago

          She didn’t give us enough information to conclude that women who were laid off consisted of a large portion of total women in that group. I don’t think we can conclude either way on this point until Diana speaks up again.

          Reply
  3. Think about it2 months ago

    If women were really cheaper than men across the board, do you not think that in this capitalistic world, in this profit before all else world, that there would be more women in jobs than men?? Think please people. Employers who are willing to employ illegal immigrants, and break the law, apparently, have a perfectly legal way to get the same amount of work done, for less money if these statistics are correct. So why are women not preferentially employed? Think about it. Don’t blindly believe what you are spoon fed.

    Reply
    1. Eh.1 month ago

      This story also explains that women are more likely to quit their job or have to leave for familial duties. So, that makes it more of a risk to hire women across the board to save money. I think you’re oversimplifying the issue. Women are not paid as much as men, but there are ways to explain why the gap occurs.

      Reply
    2. margret1 month ago

      Think about it…..Are you a woman? Somehow I doubt it. Do you have any idea
      how hard a woman has to work and prove herself in a male environment,
      especially engineering…pay and raises and promotions are never equal..NEVER!
      If you are male, do you have a working wife? Do you know what she is up against…are you sympathic?

      Reply
      1. Alex Lucania1 month ago

        Actually the pay gap when you control for job type is way smaller than the usual quoted statistics. The majority of the problem lies in women taking work that pays less and some discrimination based on a higher likelyhood of them taking time away from work for child care (or in the case of hourly work just an automatic symptom of working part time).

        I’m all for closing the gap but sticking your head in the sand about causes it isn’t going to close it. finding ways to get more women to go into higher paying work however would help dramatically. Nurturing a culture of more male involvement in child care would also help level the field (some countries have mandatory paternity leave for this reason.

        New statistics are actually showing that more women are getting college degrees than men and more are choosing to go into STEM fields than before. There also seems to be a trend of more females getting law degrees. We actually might see this gap close dramatically, maybe even reverse in the next decade or so. which I have no problem with.

        Sometimes I wish we would make pay parity (within job type) mandated by law just so that people could see there is still a gap, forcing them to actually acknowledge the larger reasons for the gap rather than just dump it all on discrimination perpetrated by men which actually the smallest part of the story.

        Reply
      2. Canof Sand1 month ago

        You say “think about it”, yet you’re replying to someone who thought about and posted logical arguments with an appeal to emotion. You lose.

        Reply
        1. Ty1 week ago

          WOW that is all

          Reply
    3. gourddrawing1 month ago

      There are so many sociological things working here, not just economic. Men often see themselves as a group and those who are not a part of their “team” are not considered equal. Deals, bonding and comraderie are developed on the golf course, at sporting events, and at after work trips to the bar. Women, although equal in skill, experience and/or education, are often not given the same chances as men to move up to higher paying positions for this reason.

      Reply
    4. Josie3 weeks ago

      So those studies where they took equal resumes – one with a male name, one with a female name – and presented them to employers, asking what pay rate they would offer the person – and all of them offered lower salaries to female names…every one of those is wrong? You need to think. Most white men in this country think there is no gender issue with wages because they don’t see it. Of course they don’t: they are not women. They can’t (without surgery) be a woman in that situation. They can’t feel that discrimination, because it isn’t aimed at them. And like humans are wont to do, they deflect feeling guilty by explaining it away with women’s decisions. Yeah, I think *you* need to consider this more.

      Reply
  4. Stats student2 months ago

    Actual quote from the people conducting the statistics. Does anyone here really think that any of these variable MIGHT just be important before making such broad sweeping statements??

    “While the IWPR report is carefully researched, using swaths of government data, it doesn’t purport to account for potentially important specifics like hours worked and levels of experience within professions, and, perhaps most important, the professions that women choose.”

    Reply
  5. hannah sauce2 months ago

    My brother is confused about the inequality of gender payment and how females dont get paid enough as men do. I showed him the video and he thinks its a lie, how men are treated wrong. How can I explain to him that women are the ones treated wrong?

    Reply
    1. Kathrine2 months ago

      I actually agree with your brother. Although the gender wage gap is not a lie, it has nothing to do with discrimination. The average woman earns less money than the average man because of the choices the average woman makes are different than the choices the average man makes. For example, women are more likely than a man to work only part time. Also, women are more likely to go into a field that doesn’t pay quite as well as a field a man is more likely to go into. (i.e. A Woman goes into teaching, man goes into investment banking. The Man will make a lot more money but no discrimination is involved)

      Men face a lot of discrimination that you probably aren’t aware of. For example, men are charged more money for car insurance than women based only on their gender.

      The truth is both genders are treated wrong in certain areas. However, it appears to me that men face more discrimination than women today.

      Reply
      1. Kara2 months ago

        Women face more discrimination than men. Our society holds an overarching ‘tone” that women are inferior mentally and just not worth as much as a man. It is obvious when you turn on the television, Katherine, in all the media hype over men’s accomplishments vs womens. Women are reminded consistently and continuously that they need to remain “pretty” and sexy to appeal to the male gaze in order to have worth. Women’s worth is sidelined, marginalized and ignored. Look how many sexy adds there are for make-up and how many women are sexually exploited in media and to sell products…now quick..name three women inventors! It is so disappointing when I read comments about how women are not discriminated against when 80% of CEO s in our nation are all men because no-one should have to listen to a woman or give her any cred. Take a gender studies class..there you will see.

        Reply
        1. Cheis1 month ago

          Once again this is due to a women’s choice…
          -It is a women’s choice to become a model and not a CEO, which women make more money at that male models in the same field.
          -Women are exploited in the media to sell products to mostly other women, this is also very discriminatory to men. These jobs are usually very low labor intensive type job, and most always have better work conditions than a male office type job.
          -Back to CEO, most CEOs are self-made, also titled as company president as well. Thing is when you build a company, you can call yourself the CEO, CFO, CTO, and Janitor, because during the creation of that company, you are going to wear a lot of hats.
          -About the rest of your post, it has been my experience that women seem to marginalized their abilities, but I have not seen a women’s input ignored, most of the time I see their input elevated above a man’s input.

          Reply
          1. Josie3 weeks ago

            As a woman in tech, I will tell you that a woman’s input is often ignored…unless she is aggressive, and then she’s a ball-buster who is just trying to make men look bad, so she’s often ignored then, too. I earned less than my male counterpart right out of the gate. We hired within 2 weeks of each other, and I had a degree (he didn’t), more relevant experience, and took less PTO (even with a kid at home), so why was my paycheck not the same, if not more?

          2. Ryan Sorensen1 week ago

            Did you negotiate your wage? I am a man who just got a job with less experience and education than the other men we hired at the same time and I get payed more than them… I’m good at selling my self in interviews but if it were women in the other guys shoes my boss is sexist?

        2. nysom4 weeks ago

          Regarding “turning on the television” as confirmation of a subservient role for women: most of the ads I see emphasize women as the smart, confident decision-makers, with men in the role of the moronic husband whose mistakes have to be corrected or excused, or the apologetic, low-level catering employee. Bonus points for the woman having a child, and double bonus points for it being a daughter. I watch a lot of real-estate-hunting and cooking shows…do the same for any random hour and you’ll be surprised at the number of ads that tout womanhood as first, motherhood as second, and being a man as an awkward also-ran.

          Reply
        3. Liam O2 weeks ago

          The only people saying those things are feminists in gender studies courses. Which are completely biased and tesch outdated patriarchal theory. Yes at one point in recent history women suffered a great deal of inequality. Today I defy you to name one right a man has that a woman lacks. I can name at least two that women have that men lack.

          The wage gap myth osnt necessarily that women based on raw dtatistical data get paid less. The numbers are clear. When you include the top 1%of earners there is a distinct difference. But since those 1 % predominantly have inherited wealth and havent really worked to earn it, it is unfair to use them to skew the numbers.
          Even without them the numbers are closer to 84% on the dollar to mens overall income levels. That doesnt include controls for job choices and family factors. Unfortjnately this statistic is misused to misrepresent the facts. It is difficult in competitive salary based jobs to fairly compare salaries. So many factors go into these rates including the negotiation process of the candidate. Some people are simply more skilled at negotiating. When you compare women and men not in the top end jobs, this pay gap all but vanishes. For jnstance on average the fraction of plumbers that are women make roughly the same as their male counterparts. (Where i live and work, there is no gender gap in the trades) its a lot more complicated than crying systemic discrimination

          Reply
    2. Rafael2 months ago

      Because it is a lie. this video said that woman in the 1980’s gained 64 cents, as men’s gain gained 1 dollar (that was at 00:36) so how do they know that? how many women’s in the 1980’s have they interviewed? what jobs did they have? they sayid things that they can’t prove!

      Reply
      1. Carolyn Johnson2 months ago

        I am a woman who worked in the 1960’s and I am sure there is data available from those days that may or may not support their claim. For one thing President Kennedy enacted The Equal Pay Act in 1963. The Equal Pay Act prohibits gender based wage discrimination. When men and women working for the same employer are performing the same job and have equal qualifications such as education and years of experience and have equal skills, effort, and responsibility they must receive equal pay.

        If women feel they are paid less they may make a complaint with the EEOC who will investigate the claim and impose substantial fines on the employer if found true. In addition the woman making a claim is protected from retaliation from her employer regardless of the outcome of the investigation and if found true is eligible for substantial compensation if the allegation is found to be true. That was true then and it is true today. However women who sit behind their keyboards and lament fheir pay at work are the least likely to use this resource because feminists do not recognize the tremendous accomplishments made by the Women’s Liberation Movement of the 1960’s.

        The Women’s Liberation movement was made up of working women who advocated for civil rights for all people. While feminists, who were from the upper class, supported their cause, the feminists movement continued to grow into the 70’s with a more unique agenda. While women were included in the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the feminists continued to lobby for their own Equal Right Ammendment which ultimately failed. Some of the women ‘s libbers joined the feminist movement while others like myself did not give their support. I found feminists to be radical, loud, rude, and obnoxious man haters who blamed the patriarchy for every ill of society who saw all trace of masculinity as oppressive and feminity as evidence of that oppression. But I digress. Then and now I am an equal who received equal pay for equal work.

        Reply
        1. Chris1 month ago

          Well said, great post.

          Reply
        2. Peter1 month ago

          Interesting post. While I am supporter gender equality I’ve always found the feminist movement discouraging because of the under representation of men in the discussion. When discussing the the topic of gender equality in my classes i always feel nervous about disagreeing with the women for fear of being labeled a misogynist (which I like to think I’m not). Even the name feminist implies a gender bias. I just think that the movement would have more success if it was less confrontational (which leads to defensiveness) and more inclusive.

          Reply
  6. Lucas Holland3 months ago

    I am confused, I understand there has not been gender equality in the workplace throughout history. But when you say “they make X amount of money compared to their male counterpart” does it mean that all things being equal, including job title, status, and etc. that women make less money than men? Also, is there a law that states there can’t be equality or is it just a company choice? I just would like these question answered. All respect for the cause and i believe in it I would just like this question answered. Thank you

    Reply
    1. Eileen Patten3 months ago

      Hi Lucas,

      This analysis looks at the hourly earnings of all full- and part-time workers. It does not make adjustments for job title, status, and etc. but looks at the issue in the aggregate.

      -Eileen

      Reply
      1. Wes Schaeffer3 months ago

        Unless we look at apples to apples, i.e. job title, status, etc. aren’t headlines like this just red herrings?

        I own a small business and by far the highest earning person that has ever worked for me is a woman. I literally told her to name her price to get her to come work for me.

        Headlines like this make it appear a hiring manager that is hiring two workers for the ideal job looks at the woman and says “I’M PAYING YOU LESS BECAUSE YOU’RE A WOMAN!” Is that the case anywhere?

        Is Apple or Google or Dell paying a female department head $85,000 and a male department head $100,000 just based on their gender?

        Is Taco Bell or Burger King or McDonald’s paying new female employees minimum wage and paying male employees $1 per hour more just because of their gender?

        If either of those are happening then that is truly wage inequality and those companies should be taken to task, but it seems we’d know about it and those companies would be shamed and boycotted out of business.

        So if that is not happening, this whole storyline seems more of a tempest in a teapot.

        Reply
      2. Garrett Sheehan2 months ago

        So, you are blatantly admitting that you manipulated this study to make it seem as though that women get paid less due to misogynistic practices rather than choice?

        Reply
  7. Jan3 months ago

    as a mother, I am paid less than the women I work with that don’t have small children, even though I have missed far less work days. I am paid less then the men I work with. How much? 3000.00 less per year for women 6000.00 less then the men. How do I know? Seen the payscale on the HR computer, note even kidding. Sadly, can’t even quit to get another job cause I need the paycheck. Which is exactly what they are banking on!!! Just trapped till the kids are in high school.

    Reply
    1. Drew3 months ago

      They are probably better salary negotiators than you are.

      Reply
      1. Kathryn2 months ago

        Employers should pay what the employee is worth. I’ve seen comments here filled with atrocious grammar and poor punctuation. The commenters are complaining about their smaller page checks. If their comments are any indication of the quality of their work it’s a wonder they are employees at all.

        I’m a woman, an I’ve always been paid equal or greater than my male counterparts in terms of hourly wage. However after working a few years of 45-65 hour weeks I got married. Shortly after I became pregnant and decided to stay home. I’m not angry. After 5 years off it only makes sense that other employees would have more current experience and more recent training.

        Negotiate better an offer a service that a company needs.

        Reply
        1. Betsy2 months ago

          Kathryn, you are quite judgmental about other’s grammar and punctuation and yet yours is not stellar, either. Interesting.

          Reply
  8. John Vincent3 months ago

    The smaller pay gap for younger women deserves some further study. It could be easy to assume that the world has evolved and that modern workplaces have a more-even environment. On the other hand, one could also assume that young people are more likely to receive a standard starting salary that does not vary with gender — that gender differences are more apparent as raises and promotions occur.

    Reply
    1. Eileen Patten3 months ago

      John,

      Based on your comment, you may be interested in the cohort analysis we conducted in the longer report that this blog post is based on, including some charts depicting this story (pewsocialtrends.org/2013/12/11/c…). It shows the trajectory of earnings among different cohorts of women over their working lives. In this analysis you will see that, indeed, starting salary is not the whole story. Each cohort of young women – even 25-34-year-olds back in the 1980s – have started with earnings levels closer to men the same age than is true for women overall. But as the women continue their careers they tend to slip behind the national average over time as younger workers enter the workforce.

      The rest copied from that report:

      “For example, women who were ages 25 to 34 in 1990 made 83% as much in hourly earnings as men the same age did that year, more than the 75% ratio for women overall. In 2000, when this group of women and men were ages 35 to 44, the women made 75% as much as the men, less than the 78% ratio for all women. In 2012, when this group was ages 47 to 56, the women earned 79% as much as men the same age—lower than the overall ratio of 84%, and below their own ratio in 1990.

      For the most recent cohorts of young women—those who were ages 25 to 34 in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005—pay gaps with men the same age have widened as they grew older, even as the gap for all women narrowed somewhat. For women who were ages 25 to 34 in 1980 and 1985, pay gaps with men the same age shrank as they grew older, but their current gap is larger than that for all women; when they were young workers, the gap had been smaller.”

      Reply
      1. Katelyn2 months ago

        If I’m correct sexism still had some roots in the 1980’s to the 2000’s. I also don’t see the comparison between men and women in the same field. For example, in the medical field women are more likely to go for nursing instead of becoming a doctor. This can make it look like they’re being paid less compared to men due to lower earnings but if compared with other nurses from the U.S, taking into account for education, marital status, reputation and job experience then I’m pretty sure the gap would be marginal. The problem about comparing men and women’s pay as a whole is that the social difference and expectations as well as upbringing dramatically effect the job or career that someone would be interested in.

        Reply
        1. Ashley2 months ago

          Katelyn,

          I am currently a business student, and we are in the midst of a chapter devoted to discrimination in the workplace- specifically discrimination for pay. I’m not sure about this article in particular, but most of the articles I’ve read on our library’s website are apples to apples, completely equal job comparisons between a man and a woman. We actually just completed a case analysis (true story) where a lady was with a company for over 6 years and was paid less than 3 individuals who were hired on with absolutely no experience and less education than she had. This gender pay gap still exists unfortunately; it extends far beyond just the variance between men and women to perform different types of jobs. This gap is present with identical jobs, identical education, and even identical performance (again, according to the articles I have read).

          Reply
          1. Chris1 month ago

            If this was true and women were paid less than men, why don’t companies hire more women to decrease their operating expense. Also what job did the women do, and what were the men hired for.

            Then I look for a job, I put on the sales hat. During the negotiation I want to sell my service for the most I can get during that contracted time. Once the contract is up we then go back to the table, and based on past performance during that contracted time, if we did well, I can negotiate for more.

            The same when you look for employment at a company, the first thing you have to do is sell yourself during the interview, then you negotiate your value based on the interview. After you have been in the job for a year, you go back to the table for renegotiation. If you feel negotiations did not go well, you have to be prepared to negotiate with another company. Once you have a better offer in hand, you can except the offer, or negotiate with your current employer with the other offer in hand.

  9. Richard Olivier3 months ago

    There is no real reason except that companies , corporations like having this issue, they save money by having women work for less and it’s just another game! women and men should be paid the same for the same work, and not have one gender looking at the other as if one is comfortable with this scenario !! Divide and create a diversion !! Both parties, dems and re pubs should be ashamed !!!!! Our. Government, to allow this, is no better than the slave wage offshore privateers, the countries, that ” Do Not Care About Their Citizens !!!!! There’s a modicum of justice in pay and benefits in America, not created by Business or Corporations, rather, by the men and woman, our ancestors, that fought for Unionization…. Look at who wants to destroy unions and the people that fight against unions !!!!!!! Research work conditions in America prior to Unions….. and how families were affected !

    Reply
  10. Curiousone4 months ago

    Can we put this to bed? I want to know are woman paid less doing the same job for the same company with all skills and time served being equal?

    It is easy to say one CEO is paid more than another but they are both CEOs if one works for a non-profit organisation whilst the other works for the largest bank in the world…..

    So if they are paid less, at the same company, worked for the same period of time at said company (so no absence period that is greatly above their male counterpart) work the same areas, in fact, do exactly what their male counterpart does and have the same qualifications etc etc etc and they have requested pay increases exactly as their male counterparts have done etc etc etc…and please, I say this again…..IT IS THE SAME COMPANY AND SAME JOB AND EVERYTHING THE MALE HAS DONE THE FEMALE HAS DONE….are women paid less?

    In my job I have to work harder, be fitter, I am penalised more harshly than my female counterparts, work in an environment that promotes positive discrimination towards women (who the Sue the company for positive discrimination) and I am paid the same…..their would be hardly no women doing this job if they were treated as equals to their male counterparts, this company has realised men and women are not equally attributed and adjust the standards for women compared to their male counterpart……equality at its best…….

    Reply
    1. Mark Zinan3 months ago

      that is the issue. But we are dealing with pure emotion and rally the political troops to a cause. Get everybody jacked up. It is an incredibly emotional issue. The fact that no apples to apples comparison is performed is irrelevant to the dogmatists and ideologues.

      Reply
    2. Moname913 months ago

      I work as a high school teacher. I have been teaching for 5 years. A male colleague, who has been teaching the same amount of time in similar subjects, we both went two days apart to negotiate pay raises with the principal. We both had the same monetary amount in mind. Guess which one of gets his desired raise and which one of us got a pat on the back and a hundred dollars less? Now you may think well perhaps the male teacher is a better teacher. He is an excellent teacher, but so am I. My student evaluations are excellent and my students grades are above average. The ratio of women to men at my place of work is about 3-1 and still most of the power positions are held by men. We all know the reason for this pay gap is because women have children. We are out of the work force for at least a couple of months and then when our children are sick more often than not its the mothers who stay home to take care of their children. My husband would have loved to share in staying home with our child, but he makes $2000 more a month than I do. Simply put we couldn’t afford for him to stay home. I think it’s ironic to read articles especially written by men that say we chose lower paying jobs. We chose to stay home with our children or to hear that nowadays women can have both a family and a career. No one has ever said that about men because it’s a given that men already have it all. Yes we can have it all, but with lower pay.

      Reply
      1. fairness and facts3 months ago

        Anecdotes are not facts – this is a single story of ONE INCIDENT which by the way sounds illegal / discriminatory. Claiming it is ‘representative’ is simply a claim – if anyone really believes in FAIRNESS then they will stick to verifiable facts.

        Reply
      2. Skar n3 months ago

        “I think it’s ironic to read articles especially written by men that say we chose lower paying jobs.” “I work as a high school teacher.”
        Uh… You’re literally the statistic people point to when they say that. If you wanted to make money, you should have tried a degree in business, or programming, or law, or medicine, or science, or pretty much anything but ‘high school teacher’. Sorry, it’s just the truth.

        Reply
        1. Kiwi3 months ago

          1. Its unfair to say someone shouldn’t do something they love for the sake of earning more money. If everybody were to strive for the highest paying job, we would have a lot of occupations going unfulfilled, and education is important. The job itself as compared to other jobs and the money she makes as an individual under that job wasn’t the point. The comparison of her income to her male counterpart was.
          2. She was giving a personal example of the pay gap, something she has experienced. So to her, this statistic is very real. That is why she posted, saying that somewhere it does exist and that women and men alike would like for it to not exist anywhere.

          Reply
        2. A1 month ago

          In my country at the moment, the only degrees that are most likely to ensure a job are teaching or nursing-so really if one wants to make any money then there isn’t much choice then picking these lower paid ones.
          Secondly there has been research done that reflects pay gaps across industries between men in women in the EXACT job, doing he same work in the same companies. Check at wgea.gov.au and look at the Gender pay gap statistics fact sheet 2015.

          Reply
  11. El Chapo4 months ago

    Women have the right to earn the same

    Reply
  12. Louis4 months ago

    Women and men should have the same pay no matter what circumstances (only if they are in the same job). But even though I’m a man i think I am overpaid for what I do and women are underpaid for equal or better jobs.

    Reply
    1. Steve2 months ago

      Why don’t you relinquish some of your pay then. Stop sounding all noble and do something about it.
      I think a man should make more if he has a better resume just like a woman should make more if she has a better resume.
      Scenario – there are two job openings at a company, both positions are the same – a man applies after graduating from a community college and a woman applies having graduated from Harvard. You think they should both be offered the same pay?

      Reply
  13. Sarah4 months ago

    You guys are forgetting that she also used an example where the female and male coworkers work in the same field, same education, experience, etc, yet female gets a lower amount of money

    Reply
    1. Corey3 months ago

      But in the same example she takes more time off and works less hours than he does.

      Reply
  14. mistrix65 months ago

    If this study is based on hourly pay then why would it matter if the worker took time off? This site seems to be mixing itself up with studies that use annual earned income. Kinda sketch.

    Reply
    1. facepalm3 months ago

      maybe because you are paid for the hours you work? might be the reason, just maybe.

      Reply
    2. Eileen Patten3 months ago

      Hi,

      See this explainer blog post for the rationale behind showing hourly earnings: pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/1…

      From that post:

      “We chose to use hourly earnings, estimated as usual weekly earnings divided by usual hours worked in a week, because it irons out differences in earnings due to differences in hours worked.

      For example, women are twice as likely as men—26% versus 13%—to work part-time. Naturally, that has a significant impact on the relative earnings of women and men if one looks at weekly earnings. To account for the skew in hours worked, the government’s estimate of the gender pay gap is derived for full-time workers only, defined by the government as people who usually work at least 35 hours per week.”

      Reply
  15. Illeana Gonzalez Hall5 months ago

    Equal Pay Day, now

    Reply
  16. Nick5 months ago

    In the fight for equality, I think some aspects of society are actually perpetuating the cycle. By way of example: I’m purchasing some tickets for an event and the cost of the ticket is based on gender, where womens tickets are 25% cheaper than a mans. As much as I’d like to see everyone on the same level, I think there are entirely too many double-standards that will not allow for this. You can’t have your cake and eat it too.

    Reply
    1. Jordan4 months ago

      Feminism exists to fight things like this. From doing the dangerous jobs, from not paying to pay more OR less for a ticket, to serving in our military (feminism is fighting for this dangerous right while “traditional” anti-feminism groups are fighting against it), to getting the same promotion of opportunities as men (most women experience a much lower glass ceiling in men). That’s exactly what feminism is for.

      Reply
      1. Deborah4 months ago

        Finally! Somebody else who remembers the good old days. A lot of people don’t realize the achievements feminism made, even just since the 1960s. Most are probably not old enough to remember those crazy braless women who insisted that they should have the rights to join the regular armed forces or work a forklift or drive an 18-wheeler or dig a ditch and more! One of the main reasons we fought for job rights was because that ditch digger was making 3 times as much as that executive secretary was making, maybe more.

        There are many men who are accusing feminists today of just going after the “glamour jobs,” whatever they are. I’ve been told by more than one man that I was lying when I brought up some early “demands.” Then there’s the classic “feminism never did anything for me” coming from some young women of today.

        Reply
      2. Heather3 months ago

        Well said Jordan! Unfortunately, modern feminist of today are very different and have different agendas than their processors. While Woman Sufferage fought for women’s right to vote, the 2nd wave feminist fought to ensure women’s legal rights and legal equality, modern 3rd wave feminist are fighting for female supremacy.

        Reply
  17. Tom5 months ago

    Keep in mind that if women were really 25% cheaper to hire by your average company or government entity then only women would be hired. Economics is economics and men would just be too expensive to have on staff. A tiny disparity does exist, but it’s most often because of a woman’s absence from the work force for child-related responsibilities or unwillingness to take dangerous or inconvenient jobs away from family.

    Reply
  18. O.G.5 months ago

    mylampstand, not only is the child-rearing not recognized but the actual, excruciating physical act of giving birth and the toll it takes on the person not just performing labor but going INTO it.

    Reply
  19. O.G.5 months ago

    Since when is 93% considered “catching up”? That’s some funny math they are working with because I’m pretty sure they don’t hand out two gold medals at the Olympics when one runner crosses the finish line 7% later than the first one.
    As for your comment, dan, women don’t statistically gravitate toward lower paying fields. Lower paying fields gravitate toward women.

    Reply
    1. Logic3 months ago

      Actually I would argue that lower paying fields do not gravitate towards women at all. The issue with today’s society is not that women are being paid less based off of sexism, its that women are being paid less because, for lack of a better word, our society has “breeded” them in order to take the lower paying jobs. Think about it. Girls are expected to play with barbies and play house, while boys on the other hand are told to play with legos or go play sports. Those forced childhood stereotypes then echo with them throughout their life. Therefore more men statistically will go into engineering or construction based jobs. Whereas more women will pursue a career in early childhood education or psychology, which are on average have a significantly lower annual salary when compared to jobs in the science and technology field (which is stated earlier as being predominately inhabited by men). If we want to end the wage gap, we need to reduce the effect of gender roles in society that dictate what gender should work which job.

      Reply
      1. h harper3 months ago

        I am amidst research on the wage gap and this is my first article for this particular perspective, but your comment makes sense. It seems closer to the root of the problem which results in a solution rather than a quick fix band aid that won’t solve much of anything. Although, I disagree that it’s not sexism causing the wage gap- it’s sexism, but in a different way than assumed. Your comment blatantly tells how our society is sexist- girls are discouraged from high paying jobs from day one through sexist expectations just as the boys are. If a girl wants to break free and do ‘boy things’ she can’t because she’s a girl and if the boy wants to break out and do ‘girl things’ he’s girly and weird because why would you want to be a girl?

        Reply
  20. mylampstand5 months ago

    Odd how no one recognises the fact that the caring of children that women do, is actually work. Just because it is unpaid makes it is no less work and hard tiring work.
    The usual male supremacist propaganda goes something like this..
    “Women are parasites on men, using all our resources, so they must be punished”
    So Male Supremacists use women to shield them from the need to use contraceptives, the need to change diapers and to do housework. It is apparently women’s menial and trivial job to embrace and nurture the next generation into the world, not men’s, although if they did not do that menial and trivial job, there would be no men, but we won’t mention that?

    And Male Supremacists giving women any recognition would only be detracting from their own.
    Male Supremacists use all of women’s resources and on those they stand to elevate the significance of themselves and their potential whilst stifling and suffocating all of women’s.
    Male Supremacists call their jobs manly and it is imperative for all men never to let women reveal they are able to do the same jobs as men otherwise how will men then be able to claim those jobs are manly, if women can do them as well?

    and if that should happen the higher status men covet will disappear as fast as you can say feminism and equality for all and then they will be expecting us men, to take a step down from our self made pedestals we sit on and expect us to do what they have always done, all the menial and trivial work as well .. housework, diaper changing, all the things we expect them to shield us and protect us from ..
    if we can continue to demolish the image of women, cast doubt on their abilities, then all we men win, we can keep 100% quotas for men in all forms of power across the board..
    when her image is demolished, ridiculed and patronised we can look down on her from above..business as usual, will be resumed.

    if a job is beneath a man to do, then by god it is also beneath a woman..

    Any men who believe their labour, their time, their efforts are more valuable than women’s. are not men who believe in equality .. but ,
    men who believe in elitism and male supremacy instead.

    Something also not touched on here, is the retirement pension
    The main carer of children in 94% of cases is the mother.
    People who have children need more money than people who do not, regardless of income.
    Women make big sacrifices in lifetime earnings when they become mothers, by comparison when men become parents they rarely if ever relinquish their careers and their earnings remain unaffected, except they gain some what by receiving an extra tax allowance against their earnings.

    Women’s pension rights are adversely affected by virtue of their having to take time out of work to bear and raise their children. This means that when they retire the pension that they receive will be severely reduced and most will only receive a pension best described as a poverty level income. Unlike men who not suffering this burden as women do, they will retire to the entitlement of a full pension and therefore ultimately benefit from the woman’s sacrifice.

    Due to the fact most men do not take on this burden that women do men will be entitled to a full pension and will then ultimately financially benefit from their partners sacrifice.

    If you believe that in order to escape these difficulties that women should not have children then consider the fact that if they do not have children and the population level then declines drastically who will there be to man the services to help look after you in your old age?

    The men earn more money than women so therefore they pay a higher level of tax than women but if women earned the same income they would pay the same level as tax as men.

    The point of a caring society and one which we would all like to live in is that contributions are made and the money is used to help those who are in need irrespective of their marital status.
    In a caring society there are no sins of fathers or the mothers!.
    When single women have the sole responsibility of caring for their child for what ever reason that may be then men who are the fathers of these children benefit enormously because this burden of care is taken off their shoulders which allows them to maintain their employment without hindrance.

    If men pay more taxes for these benefits they reap due to these women’s sacrifices then that is as it should be in a caring society, men benefit because their children are being taken care of, which leaves them free to fully focus on themselves and their employment, but it would be just as much a burden on men if women didn’t do all this unpaid work for them, and if they didn’t then men would be forced to consider maintaining this care of their children themselves.

    Whether men pay directly or indirectly is irrelevant the fact that they are responsible for children in their society who are the next generation and who need financing is relevant because these children will in the near future be the ones who will be supporting and caring for these men in their old age.

    Reply
    1. kirksteel4 months ago

      Your argument is not really relevant to the issue. Is carrying a child to term, giving birth and raising a child well, important work? Absolutely! It is the most important job in society. However, when I need a finishing carpenter, for example, I want the most experienced, professional CARPENTER I can get for my money, regardless of sex and regardless if they have nurtured children. On average, a man who has stayed home for years to raise children will have less work experience in his profession and will earn less than his peers who are the same age but have many years more experience.

      Reply
  21. Mark Zinan5 months ago

    “and some part of the pay gap may also be due to gender discrimination – women are about twice as likely as men to say they had been discriminated against at work because of their gender (18% vs. 10%).”

    Facts please. “say” they have been discriminated against.

    Reply
  22. tthart5 months ago

    Sally, not so. so glad you made this comment because it illustrates and important misconception. The data show that ALL women on average earn less than ALL men; the data do not show that Betsy makes less for the same job and same experience than Bobby (your example). I’m afraid you’ve been misled. Please dig a little deeper in to what the data show.

    Reply
  23. norma5 months ago

    I’m reading through the comments and I keep seeing people saying the gender pay gap is a myth. THE GENDER PAY GAP IS NOT A MYTH. At least not in Florida. I have a friend that went to the same school as a male counterpart, same grade, was hired at the same place, doing the exact same job with the same, and at times greater, effort than her male counterpart. However, he paid an entire $2.00 more than her. This is because in Florida, women can, and are, still legally be paid less than men. A myth, huh?

    Reply
    1. tthart5 months ago

      Norma, you can’t generalize from individual experience.

      Reply
    2. Mark Zinan5 months ago

      How do you all know what the man was paid?

      And in private industry salaries are negotiated. There are wage scales for the same position.

      Reply
  24. Arthur Mathews5 months ago

    All I know seeing with my own eyes is being a blue collar guy I used to work at a large distribution center for a major corporation. The management had 2 sheets on the board, 1 ‘flex down’ the other ‘flex up’. The flex up was 90% men while flex down was 90% women that worked there. Without knowing what they were you’d think something sexist was going on. But the sheets were voluntary, flex down meant if not enough hours for evert body to get 40 hours in your department you volunteered to leave. Flex up meant you volunteered for overtime which that was overwhelmingly male. Not saying the women were lazy by any means, many of them were single mothers and probably needed more time at home. Im just saying this appears to be more an issue of who does the child rearing and is that fair, but it appears to me thid issue is often being used as being a male bashing discrimatory sort of thing and I don’t think that’s fair. Also while I do believe in a higher minim wage and laws to protect against discrimination I think it’s a mistake to get the government too involved in the management of who gets what wages. Especially in the private sector but I could write a whole other book on that. LOL

    Reply
  25. Christopher Allman5 months ago

    The wage gap is a myth. It is entirely based on the different decisions women make. This has been proven since the 90’s. Even Hannah Rosin, founder of Slate’s XX blog has written about this slate.com/articles/double_x/doub… In fact, there is now a growing wage gap in the other direction for childless individuals under the age of 30.

    Reply
    1. a5 months ago

      Women make those decisions because they are given few alternatives or opportunities. Men are also controlled in the work force–a lot of upper management jobs are driven by working overtime, which means he cannot be at home as much. Men who are single are also promoted more than men with families. Many work places are often very unsympathetic to couples with a family. This is an unbalanced way of living and is affecting families. I do not consider this a functional aspect of American society. Either sex working a disproportionate amount is not actually good news.

      Reply
  26. Sally Edelstein5 months ago

    While learning how to count in elementary school we also learned who counted! While Bobby earned $1 for a days work washing the dog, Betsy earned only 77 cents.
    The idea of a gender based wage gap today seems as antiquated as the retro school book illustration found in vintage Arithmetic books where we learned those lessons early. Take a look wp.me/p2qifI-28Q

    Reply
    1. Mark Zinan5 months ago

      it’s not an apples to apples comparison when discussing the 77 percent.

      Reply
    2. Nate5 months ago

      The scenario that you used is completely false and shows your ignorance and your inability to look at the bigger picture. Side by side doing the same job Bobby will not earn more just because he’s a male and Betsy is a female, thats completely irrelevant to the situation. That “fact” is based on a national survey comparing how much each each gender makes in total and compares the two. Generally men work longer hours, take less time off than women (maternity leave) and women generally stop working after the child(ern) are born to look after them and raise them. (stereotype but true). Thats what creates the pay gap not sexism, and if their is a reason pertaining to pay based on gender it doesn’t last. That company/ person is usually sued/ fired and doesn’t even happen that often at that.

      Reply
  27. ML Ross5 months ago

    Nice to have a day drawing attention to equal pay day but discrimination against the hiring of middle aged people is a topic completely omitted from the conversation. Women, sometimes men, become caregivers for family and when they attempt to return to the work force, they are shunned due to age or employer fears their skills are antiquated.
    Pew, how about doing a study on middle people still left out of the economic recovery and they sink into poverty, homelessness and worst?

    Reply
    1. a5 months ago

      I agree and excellent point! You have touched on the real issue: the workplaces’ aversion to providing money for families. They want robots, not humans. They want someone they can abuse and pay as little as possible. It is not only destroying the lives of women, but men, especially parents. We need a family-positive environment in the workforce that centers around equal opportunity whether you have children or are single. Especially since a lot of work is now being delegated to computers, parents may be able to work more on their computers at home, creating less friction for paid leave. I think with the implementation of insightful technology combined with reform of policy, the wage gap could disappear while also creating a more positive communicative environment for families nation-wide.

      Reply
    2. Mark Zinan3 months ago

      trying to prove age discrimination ain’t easy but it’s a good point. We are trying to make “perfection” in a world where perfection is an unattainable idea or emotion. We are only emotional humans trying to create unattainable visions of perfection.

      Reply
  28. Darrin5 months ago

    Why have i witnessed every job i applied at as almost all women. I rarely ever see mem at jobs here in san diego. Even job descriptions say prefer female or women. I have applied to 200+ different places and im a certified medical assistant. I have been turned down at every place (retail, medical, assistant, billing, waiting tables) i have done a survey of how many women work at places here compared to the men. Almost every place, except gay bars and stores, have women working more than men. That is discrimanation. I have done my research and did went to all those places physically

    Reply
    1. Maria5 months ago

      I think that if you were to get hired at one of the jobs you applied to, you would have a higher wage than a female. This article has nothing to do with how many women have jobs, but rather the wages a woman earns compared to her male counterpart. So what’s your point?

      Reply
      1. Mike4 months ago

        The point is the Wage Gap does NOT exist.

        Reply
    2. IanB2 months ago

      “Even job descriptions say prefer female or women”

      Perceived discrimination against women is replaced with real discrimination against men. Imagine the fury about a job description that even hinted that men were preferred.

      Reply
  29. dan7 months ago

    I am tired of this nonsense. The statistic that gets bantered around as a stone cold fact “Women make $0.77 for every $1.00 a man makes for the same job” IS NOT TRUE.

    Statistics get skewed everyday, this one is no different. The last part of that statement is patently false “for the same job.” NOT True. The statistic is across the board – the Average American Man’s VS The Average American Women’s earnings. It is not an Apples to Apples comparison for the Same Job. This is an important distinction.

    Here’s why –
    Statistically women gravitate toward lower paying fields.
    Statistically men work more overtime.
    Statistically men commute 33% Further ( literally chasing the money down the highway)
    Statistically women take more time off from the work force for child rearing
    Statistically men change jobs more often- to make more money

    The over all statistic is always pointed to as unexplainable by any one factor, Well these factors above cumulatively start to explain the majority of it away.

    I am all for Equality, That is why I am not so big on feminism, in favor of Humanism. But even Feminists, looking to empower their “sister’s” point to statistics that a Man is more likely to ask for a raise than a women.

    Every time a women writes an article on this subject, she quickly dimisses, the child rearing and the lower paying fields aspects, and never addresses the commute or Overtime issue. The overtime gap alone explains 10% of the gender gap all by itself as a hard Statistical fact. And no man is spending 2 hours in traffic daily, driving to the nearest larger metropolitan area, for the same money available closer to home. They do this for a better Paycheck.
    And the younger woman will now decry, “I’m making that same commute!” Yes, you are millennial, welcome to equality. The $0.73 on the $1.00 statistic LITERALLY doesn’t pertain to you. You are being paid equally, Statistically speaking, when compared to your male counterparts your own age.
    Humanism, come join us, the door is always open….

    Reply
    1. Athena7 months ago

      Love your comment.

      You may want to give 4th Wave Feminism a try. It brings the focus of feminism *BACK* to equality.

      The wage gap is indeed a myth. 4thwavers.wordpress.com/2014/08/…

      Reply
      1. Michael6 months ago

        Every experience with 4th wave I’ve had is the opposite of what you say. They’re still insisting that women’s issues are much more important than men’s issues, and they’re still kicking around “77 cents per dollar,” “less than 2% of men are raped,” “false rape accusations almost never happen,” and “domestic violence primarily affects women.”

        But if you can point me to a community that isn’t doing that, I’m willing to reconsider. It would actually be very refreshing.

        Reply
        1. Domestic Violence5 months ago

          “Domestic violence primarily affects women.” Please expand

          Reply
        2. chris5 months ago

          Try MGTOW or MRA groups.

          Reply
    2. Humanism6 months ago

      Humanism: a form of rationalism that rejects faith-based thoughts or beliefs in favor of scientific evidence. Not really relevant to this topic.

      Yes, those factors – child-rearing, lower-level/clerical jobs – mostly EXPLAIN the pay gap… But they doesn’t JUSTIFY the gap. The reasons that women are more likely to go towards lower-level jobs that are often closer to home and require less education and have t take on the burden of a majority of child-rearing, are residue from an ongoing history of prejudice towards women.

      -A Man

      Reply
      1. Sarah5 months ago

        Bravo, ‘A Man’!

        Reply
      2. blah5 months ago

        Actually 3rd wave feminism has left the realm of fact and has become a faith, so in this one small bit he was right to use humanism. But yeah he possibly means egalitarian.

        Reply
      3. a5 months ago

        Agree! Well said. Some people just don’t understand what equality means, I guess.

        Reply
      4. Regal Timerus5 months ago

        In the UK girls have outperformed girls in education for almost 25 years in jjust about every subject. The number going to University is almost 30% higher and the number achieving the highest level of degree (a first or a 2:1) is almost double.

        There are affirmative actions costing hundreds of millions to get more girls into the one or two areas where they don’t already dominate (IT and heavy engineering) and despite their overwhelming superiority to boys in education in every other field, the only question being asked is “Why aren’t more girls in IT and Science.. it’s a disgrace – spend more money on it NOW”
        The question of why boys are behind and getting further behind in the other 85% of subjects is apparently only asked by chauvenists and misogynists. Apparently if girls aren’t ahead in EVERY field, there is something wrong and public money needs to be spent to fix it.

        Likewise the gap in life expectancy between men and women is GROWING. Women in the UK now live 6+ years longer than men, 40 years ago it was 4 years. They retire earlier (5 years earlier) giving them 11 years more on pension.
        What that means in practice is that
        Men are massive net contributors putting into both state and private pension.
        Women are mass TAKERS from both private and state pensions.

        The system RELIES on men retiring later, and dying as quickly as possible to support the women who retire earlier and live significantly longer.
        If that didn’t happen then pensions would be unaffordable.

        Why is there a 5 year gap in retirement age?
        And if their is why does it favour the sex that already lives significantly longer?
        What sort of equitable arrangement is that?
        Can you imagine the uproar if this alone was reversed?

        How it would be a prime glowing beacon of the “patriarchy” at work
        But as it’s men who pay and die.. and it’s women who withdraw the cash and benefit from a system DESIGNED with inequality favouring women in mind… it’s conveniently never discussed.

        Women, stop pretending your rubbish at everything and need special help in every field of work and home life – and moaning about how disadvantaged you are.

        If that’s what feminism is; it’s pathetic; and you should be ashamed to call yourself a feminist.

        Reply
      5. Jon3 months ago

        So we should pay women higher for jobs that don’t deserve it? Why should we pay a counselor the same as a doctor? They chose that job so they can take the pay they get. Want higher pay? Be a doctor!

        Reply
    3. Chelly5 months ago

      Dan — did you miss the fact that the article you just read was written by a woman and the bar graph it included showing women are more likely to work reduced hours, take time off, quit a job, and turn down a promotion due to child-rearing responsibilities? There are many, many articles out there by feminists discussing the child-rearing issue.

      The harshest critics I’ve seen of feminism do not appear to have ever read an article or a book by reputable leaders of the feminist movement. They appear to have gotten their information directly from FOX News or some other backlash group.

      Reply
    4. tony5 months ago

      thank god for you dan

      Reply
    5. Frank5 months ago

      How many women are raised by their families to be mothers? How many women are raised to let men take hold of things? Do you see why enforcing these ideals on our children, than women should be anything different than men, is toxic? There’s a pretty obvious reason for why there are less applications coming from women. It has to do a lot with how they have been socialized, and where we are in social history. Do you think that the most successful people in our economy, the people who do the hiring for the higher paying positions, do you think that they are progressive generation Xers? No. The people at the top of the ladder are still bigots when it comes to their perception of the equal capability of women.

      Reply
    6. Ross4 months ago

      Was literally looking for a comment like this because it bugged me that they grouped both sexes together in a large pool rather than compare a work force with similar jobs, experience, marital status and within the same age range.

      When comparing two groups for a single variable you want to eliminate as many other variables as possible. Here we’re looking at what each group earns so it SHOULD be common sense to rule out the very things people bring up as arguments (taking time off for child rearing, doing a completely different job, etc.).

      I’m not saying I believe that the wage gap is a myth. I just want someone to do the research properly so it can become clear what the actual cause is. And if that turns out to be sexism then by all means fix it.

      Reply
      1. Jim4 months ago

        Yes! Exactly! There are FAR too many variables being included in these statistics. It’s just simply bad research without eliminating as many variables as possible. They should be comparing men and women who’ve worked in the same job who haven’t left the workforce to raise children…or both men and women in the same field who’ve left for the same amount of time to raise children….etc. Additionally, women who began working in the 1980’s are still being included in these “overall” statistics that we hear about, which dates back to a time, right or wrong, where women were not being educated as widely as the men at that time, nor anywhere near to how educated they are now. Do you expect their employers to simply offer out thousands of extra dollars to “bring them up to speed”, considering also that many of them likely left the workforce for at least several years to support the family. Look, I think women and men should make the same money for doing the same job. However, societally women usually leave work for a while to raise kids. And if you are a women who left to raise kids would you have preferred to work and to have had your husband take care of the kids? Do you feel like that was an expectation of you? what you may be feeling is a gendered bias that was created by years of socialization, not the sexual discrimination of evil men somewhere in a board room deciding not to pay you equally simply because you are a woman.

        Reply
  30. Anonymous1237 months ago

    Question. these statistics(general work force). I’m curious what the specifics are per work set:

    Engineers
    Managers etc and how many are of the older generation.

    What was the application rate for those positions.’

    For 100 women working in accounting, how many applied for the job.

    For 100 men,, how many applied. I bet the percentage for men competing had been lot higher. My point is, is that there are not the same number of applications for job skill sets, that this article portrays as a gross total. But of those applicants, women get higher pay than men per successful applicant. I’m basing this on what I see around my work. I’m the minority as a man. And I have more education (Engineering BS) and MS in Business and 12 years experience vs someone who has 4. I know the snarky comment is , well you don’t perform, which is getting derailed from the topic at hand. Back to my point, I wonder of the women who have the job, how many applied and with what skill set.

    How many Women work in Defense contractor firms on a technical staff with non technical degrees earning the same as men who do? I can’t find this anywhere. I have a question, why?

    Reply
  31. Nurd8 months ago

    In response to Equal Pay Day, I present to you Equal Work Day. This is the day of the year when men can stop working, because they’ve already worked as much as women do for the entire year. This day generally lands in late August or early September. On Equal Work Day, men can stop working for the rest of the year and watch women catch up to the hours they’ve already worked earlier in the year.

    Reply
    1. Fred5 months ago

      Don’t get me wrong, I am totally against this gap and am a firm believer in equality for all but this did make me chuckle!

      Reply
    2. Mark Zinan3 months ago

      how about equal pay on dates?

      Reply
  32. Eve10 months ago

    What if women think and behave like men? Perhaps a cost/benefit analysis would shed light on a woman having a family. Studies show that women are less happy in a marriage, earn less because they don’t have work flexibility to care for familial matters, and may suffer health issues due to pregnancies. Is having a family beneficial to society? Definitely so. Why do women bear the cost of this benefit to society? People who leave the workforce to serve in the military receive benefits for their sacrifice…why aren’t women provided benefits for their sacrifice in helping society? After all, we wouldn’t have military personnel if women decided that having children wasn’t beneficial to their future. Maybe obstacles abound for women because the contributions that they make are not valued. Bridgid Schulte and Anne-Marie Slaughter are bringing these and many other obstacles to light. We need to integrate into our society the changes that other countries have made to appreciate and value the contributions of women. It doesn’t have to be this way.

    Reply
    1. Boythorn Ironclad8 months ago

      “Maybe obstacles abound for women because the contributions that they make are not valued.”

      Exactly, I don’t value your choice to procreate. And I don’t want to subsidize it. We have enough humans. It’s not a service to society when millions are waiting to get into the country. If you want access to contraception and abortion, I’m happy to protest with you, but don’t try to guilt-trip everyone else into helping with your kids.

      Reply
    2. dan7 months ago

      Eve,
      Are you kidding? Studies show men Die younger, studies show work related stress has everything to do with it. Studies show 10% of this sophist fake gap you are so fixed on is based on men working more overtime. Studies show men commute 33% further than women for work ( Why do you think that is?)
      How would you delegate this “Homemaker” Benefit package? How many years? At what age does it stop? How long do we have to Federalize The Duggars?
      I’d love to see what the Childless couple has to say about your “Homemaker” benefit Package. I’d love to see how many divorces result from women expecting every year of Child rearing are their “homemaker benefit package” when Dad could just as easily catch a break… NOPE.
      And one last thought, did you just compare Motherhood to serving in a War zone?

      Reply
      1. Achye5 months ago

        Yeah … she *actually* compared motherhood to a war zone.
        Entitled much? LOL!
        And so why she believes her own nonsense.
        ….. A false sense of entitlement leading to a ridiculous remark.

        White women got a great scam going in this country. Imagine, counting yourself into the “bereaved minority class” (and all the privileges that go with it) without any real bereavement! And then, when you point that out, you are called every name on the planet.

        They get the privilege of whites (and pretend they don’t) and the privilege of minorities (which they pretend doesn’t exist).
        Great scam, ladies. Great scam.

        White women – the most protected class in the history of the world … pretending they aren’t.

        Reply
  33. mysterman12 months ago

    Warren Farrell said it best about this topic and it’s even stated in this article!

    Women get paid less because,
    “Roughly four-in-ten mothers say they have taken a significant amount of time off from work (39%) or reduced their work hours (42%) to care for a child or other family member. Roughly a quarter (27%) say they have quit work altogether to take care of these familial responsibilities. (Fewer men say the same. For example, just 24% of fathers say they have taken a significant amount of time off to care for a child or other family member.)”

    It’s not a fair comparison if you take the general population of both sex because of these duties, such as taking care of your family or loved ones. If a woman has a family, she will work less than her husband or any man because she is attending more to her family than her career. She sacrifice her career to be with her family. Her husband will work more because he needs to provide for his family.

    The other problem is rather the comparison is properly compared with the same industry. A doctor can either work in the public or private sector. If more women work in the public sector, then she will earn less than those who work in the private sectors.

    There will always be a discrepancy since wages are negotiated.

    The overall tone as to why women earn less is due to the overall value that women choose that men do not and it’s the reason why women live longer and have a fruitful life compared to men. What women tend to do is set a limit and live with it while a man would thrive for more. A woman maybe comfortable with 50k and not go further with her career. But a man would thrive to earn more and move up the social ladder.

    Reply
    1. dollypuss11 months ago

      HOLY what! Someone has to take care of the family!

      Glad you are noting that a man like this would “thrive for more” – yeah, this kind of man that you describe thrives… because he has a woman who will take care of the petty little life issues like sick children and parents (and, likely, his parents).

      Good luck with that social ladder. You need a partner taking care of your personal life, and earning an income to move up these days.

      Reply
      1. Enrique11 months ago

        Do you really think that Jamie Dimon’s wife or Safra Katz’s husband (or any other spouse of executives who are considered to be atop the social ladder) does any housework, childcare, or “homemaking” (as it is traditionally defined)?

        Reply
        1. Enrique11 months ago

          Catz* darn you autocorrect!

          Reply
      2. dan7 months ago

        Dolly,
        Yes, no question “Someone has to take care of the family”

        But that raises a couple of fair questions –
        What company should be paying you for that?
        Do Men’s wages suffer when they have to make the same admiral sacrifices to take care of their families, because sometimes it is the man who does this, What company should be paying him for that? The same one that should be paying you for it? Nuclear Family Corp LLC? Extended Family Inc.?
        And lastly, “Someone has to take care of the family”, Isn’t Dad’s Paycheck playing a role in that?

        I’m not arguing like some sort of Limbaughtomized Male Chauvinist here. Be reasonable. This argument is being blown out of all proportion. It is a false female-centric argument. and the statistics are being skewed to no end.

        Humanism . not feminism, is where the fight for equality needs to be fought. it isn’t gender or race based anymore. It’s the Haves Vs the Have Nots. You are an accidental soldier for the Haves. 10% of the country controls 90% of the wealth, and globally, last month we reached the point where the top 1% had accrued more wealth than the bottom 99%. So keep on fighting for women’s issues including this false pay gap. ( It is false) and apologize to your Sons, and Grandsons, Later. Just before you realize , oh yeah, That effected you too and extend the same apology to your daughters and Granddaughters.

        Reply
        1. Richard5 months ago

          Let me add that a married couple is a team. The money belongs to both partners and division of labor is more beneficial in many cases than having two incomes, or two full time incomes when you consider all the costs like extra insurance, fuel, food, daycare, etc. As a couple there is no meaningful statistic on gender gap. However if you consider single men to single women you will find the numbers lose any relevance for the gender gap argument..

          Reply
    2. Jenna10 months ago

      So what you’re saying is that women do not have a desire to thrive? That’s a pretty bold statement.

      Reply
      1. Justin3 months ago

        He never said that. He simply implied that as men we are pressured to make as much as possible. When was the the last time a man dumped you because of your income? I personally have never heard of such a situation, on the other hand I can’t even count the number of times me or my friends lost a girl because we couldn’t afford her expensive tastes.

        Reply
  34. Anonymous12 months ago

    I was just offered a professional position at 18% less than the man who recently held the job was making when he started 2 years ago. My credentials are better and I was recruited to the position. In addition, the man had full benefits, and if I take the job, I will not have health insurance benefits. At 50 years of age, with 20 years in this profession, and a good 15-20 good years in me, this is appalling.

    Reply
    1. mysterman12 months ago

      The problem with your situation may not be due to sex differences but economics. If you had a job in 2006, you’d be earning more than a guy who had a job in 2008. In 2006, the economy was prosperous compared to 2008 where the economy went to a recession. When I look at the job postings online today, what you’d see is employers looking for someone who has a high credential and is paying a low wage. There are entry level work for engineers where they want 4 years+ experience and are paying you an entry level salary.

      Is it private or public. If you were in private, the sky’s the limit on the grounds of the economy. But if it was public, you’d be working on the fundings of what is given to the institute. So if you came working during a time where funding was low, then you’re wage will be low if you were entering the company. The guy who worked there 2 years before will not have a low wage since they maybe contracted for the given salary during a possible time of economic prosperity.

      So it may not be so much about sex but economics.

      Reply
      1. Kayla11 months ago

        Why do you keep referencing “the economy” of the years 2006 and 2008? it is now 2014, and her comment was posted 3 WEEKS (not years) ago. the economy of 2006 and the recession of 2008 are clearly not the reason. I’m not necessarily saying that sexism IS the reason, but I am saying that “the economy” 6-8 years ago is not why this woman was offered the same position for 18% less AND without full benefits. no.

        Reply
        1. anon11 months ago

          Thank you – that comment bugged me too – clearly someone who’s not reading very closely.

          Presumably, a man held this position ‘recently’ meaning in the last, say, 3-6 months. Of course employers want to pay less, and 18% less + no benefits = saving a lot of money. And ‘the economy’ is not a huge factor if they were paying this just a few months back. 5% less, I can see – male or female – to give someone time to learn the particulars of the org, but that would be a trial period pay, unrelated to gender (or… should be).

          Reply
          1. David10 months ago

            What is also NOT stated is why the man no longer holds that particular position. Could it be he was fired or terminated because he refused to take a pay and benefits cut that the company mandated. If this is the case, then the whole argument is invalid. You had a choice to make: stay where you were or move up with the pay that was offered.
            Many things could have effected the pay scale during the last two years that were not mentioned. Why jump to the conclusion that it is because you are a woman?

          2. Bob Barker10 months ago

            This is a common thing, even for men. Employers in many cases will try to hire a new employee at a lower rate, it’s part of negotiations. If they can get you to accept a lower salary, that increases their profits. Especially since they will likely give you a raise each year, so the lower you start, the less money they’ll have to pay.

            I discovered that after firing my male coworker they wanted to give me a raise that wouldn’t even reach parity with his salary, and this was a coworker who was working UNDER me. He told me his salary when he left, allowing me to negotiate for my pay raise to at least EQUAL his salary.

            Bear in mind, I was in the senior position, he was working under me, and by firing him they should have had the money to at least pay me equal to what he was making, but they attempted to pay me less anyway, relying on me not knowing his salary.

            But I guess this is a non-story because it’s between two men.

            Not everything is about gender.

    2. derek11 months ago

      Well you can most likely thank Obama care for the lack of insurance. Companies all over the country are changing the benefit packages, due to the high cost of Obama care. And of course you will make less than someone who has been there 2 years. Most starting wages are less than the wage will be after 2 years on the job. If you are working somewhere for 2 years and the company hires a new employee to the same job as you how would you feel if they were paid the same on their first day as you after 2 years?

      Reply
      1. Kat10 months ago

        Read her post again. “18% less than the man who recently held the job was making when he started 2 years ago” ***WHEN HE STARTED***

        Reply
        1. anon6 months ago

          And the man before her probably negotiated his salary instead of just settling for the first thing offered. Sheryl sandberg. Google her.

          Reply
    3. Brian11 months ago

      I’m curious if you can’t counter the offer they gave you, and ask for more money. Plus, how is it that you are aware of the salary of the previous person?

      Reply
      1. Brandon11 months ago

        Lol, I was thinking the same. If I was offered to fill in a position with 18% money, I’m certain to ask why I received such a smaller pay.

        Reply
    4. John10 months ago

      When you are offered a position, it is your responsibility to counter that offer. He most likely negotiated to get that 18% difference. It is against the law for a employ to not offer the same amount that is offered to the opposite sex, but if a person negotiates for a higher amount in pay, the employer doesn’t have to give you the same negotiated offer. I’m sure that you think it couldn’t be that simple but next time try it and see what happens.

      Reply
    5. dan7 months ago

      Anonymous women,

      The fact that you are not being offered healthcare, leads me to believe, you are being outsourced? You are not in the employee of the company making this offer, you are sub-contracted via an employment agency? Blame that sleazy corporate practice! Fight that! Because the male sub-contracted from the employment agency is dealing with the same thing.

      Reply
  35. smitty12 months ago

    “Roughly four-in-ten mothers say they have taken a significant amount of time off from work (39%) or reduced their work hours (42%) to care for a child or other family member. Roughly a quarter (27%) say they have quit work altogether to take care of these familial responsibilities. (Fewer men say the same. For example, just 24% of fathers say they have taken a significant amount of time off to care for a child or other family member.)”

    So apparently women are earn less because they’ve worked less

    Reply
  36. Angelofnv12 months ago

    If that were the case, and that’s make or break for a woman, you wouldn’t want to be with her, anyway. I never sought a man based on his income and though some do, there are plenty that don’t.

    Reply
  37. Sue Perry12 months ago

    Many reasons for gender pay gap.

    Reply
    1. MG9 months ago

      I get paid less then every other female director in my position and I am number one in my company. Sometimes it is just the way things work out. It might not have anything to do with talent or being a man, just timing in the company.

      Reply
  38. chris12 months ago

    Women will always seek men who earn more money than them when it comes to finding a partner. If we get equal pay a lot of men will become disqualified for the woman and end up alone. I really feel uneasy about that.

    Reply
    1. Annon.11 months ago

      But if women were paid an equal amount to men, then continuing with your statement, women would as well end up alone, as they would see that there are not many men left out there who have a higher pay raise than them. Women would no longer go for men who earn more money than they do because those men would most likely be in one of the last jobs to get with the new modo.

      Reply
    2. Emily10 months ago

      Not all women choose a partner based on their income or potential earning power. If a woman making the same amount of money as a man for the same work with the same qualifications makes you uneasy, you must have some major deficiency in your character that makes you unqualified to be a partner. Women are people who make decisions based on a combination of logic and feelings. To assume a woman only chooses a partner based on a single factor demonstrates a fundamental lack of understanding of human nature.

      Reply
      1. Hunk10 months ago

        As you say, not all women do choose a partner based on status, but I say it is the vast majority. And you will probably never, never see a high-profile woman (high pay, intelligent, attractive) marry downwards on the status – spiral. Maybe you will find some, but the vast majority of women will ALWAYS choose the higher status male. And if the woman is already on the top, the air regarding men to choose gets very thin very fast.

        Reply
        1. a5 months ago

          Actually, that can and does happen all the time. You think all women celebrities and power politicians are married to someone above them? Well, the fact is, you’re wrong. They’re not. Some women do make more than their male counterparts and have even supported them while they were not working. Also, there is such a thing as stay at home dads. Wrap your head around different ways of life and get back to me. Women do *not* always choose the “higher status male” and it really depends on what your definition of high status male is. Biological studies on women suggest women seek more intangible properties such as kindness, attitude, and intelligence over appearance. Haven’t you ever seen Aladdin? Don’t be silly; the rich girl falling in love with the poor boy is almost a cliche now.

          Reply
        2. a5 months ago

          It really is not the deciding factor. Also, you’re a man. Why are you speaking on behalf of women? Do you have a girlfriend or wife and if so, why are you marginalizing her love for you down to your job? So, if you lose your job, will you lose your partner? Do you really think that is love? There are biological studies to support the strongest factor for most women in choosing a mate are intangible factors such as intelligence and perceived kindness.

          Reply
          1. Justin3 months ago

            As a man I have had to deal with plenty of women who’s number one priority was how much I made. Now none ever said it was all women or the only thing they look for. I personally have lost my gf of 3 years after I lost my job. Having said that I no longer will put up with shallow women and have learned to spot them, but they are out there. There are women who genuinely don’t care about income but they’re usually already in a relationship.

    3. Amanda7 months ago

      That is a ridiculous statement.

      Reply
  39. shaun w1 year ago

    If there were any truth to this very distorted claim, women would trend towards jobs that are commission-based. I’m a supporter of Obama and I like Maddow, but this is the most dishonest statistic being (mis-) quoted by both of them, and others.

    Reply
  40. Team Punishment1 year ago

    great article. thanks for sharing. aware.

    Reply
  41. declan1 year ago

    Well no, there is no “pay gap”. This has been disproven time and time again, a company would be sued for discrimination if it paid a male higher than a female for the same job. The fallacy in this whole argument for pay gap is that it simply compares the average earnings of all women, against the average earnings of all men, and we arrive at the “women earn 77 cents for every dollar men earn, therefore discrimination and patriarchy” lies.
    If you account for:
    A. the time women take off work for maternity leave or to raise children, or stay at home mothers.
    B. the higher portion of women who work part time or casual compared to men, who have more full time workers.
    C. the different career choices men and women make which lead them to higher or lower paying industries, eg. men are more likely to go into STEM fields, whereas women are more likely to go into say education or nursing.

    the so called “wage gap” is nullified and essentially 100% accounted for, instead of promoting the spread of lies that are detrimental to society as a whole, please do some of your own research instead of taking misleading articles written by idiots and/or feminists as truth without looking into it.

    Reply
    1. Crystal11 months ago

      There is too a wage gap. I was recruited for and started a job three weeks ago. The same time 2 men were hired for the same job at the same company. They are both making $4k a year more than me. I know this because one of them told me on my first day of work and has reminded me and the co-workers around me of my difference in pay on a few occasions at work. I called my recruiter in the morning of my 2nd day on the job and was warned that I would be let go if I brought the matter up again. After being humiliated in front of co-workers about my lower pay by the same higher paid co-worker a second time, I emailed the recruiter explaining that I know what was happening is illegal. Three days later the recruiter leaves me a voice mail stating that I am throwing some serious charges around and that someone from human resources would be contacting me to discuss the matter further. That was over a week ago and they have made no contact.

      Yesterday I decided that I would file an EEOC complaint. The federal website says you need to contact your state agency. So I went to the state of Oklahoma’s EEOC website and searched for the link giving me the address where I could file such a complaint in Tulsa. There is a link but there is no EEOC office in Tulsa. I could travel to OKC to get the forms. They have a link for help with EEOC forms on the State of OK website and when I went to that it was an external vendor selling EEOC forms for $29.99!

      So I have decided to get an attorney to settle the matter. So I can certainly see why so few of these incidents get reported. I think it is because the injured party has to jump through a bunch of hoops and take a chance on ruining their professional reputation in order to correct the matter.

      Reply
      1. HumanistX6 months ago

        You do realize that a $4k difference in salary is probably because they negotiated that salary. Did you accept the employer’s initial offer or did you counter? I am not saying that the guy throwing it in your face isn’t a complete a$$hole, he definitely is, but consider that he probably also asked for more to take the job.

        Reply
  42. Annett1 year ago

    What i do not realize is in fact how you are not actually much more well-preferred than you may be now. You are very intelligent. You know therefore significantly in relation to this subject, produced me in my view consider it from numerous numerous angles. Its like women and men are not involved until it is something to do with Woman gaga! Your own stuffs great. Always maintain it up!

    Reply
  43. Skyler1 year ago

    Yup! Can you agree more? So unfair! Men get more pay than woman? That’s just ding-dong wrong!

    Reply
  44. Hamilton1 year ago

    And women work twice as hard ,receiving even less pay. Demoralizing, patronization of women make for desultory work environment. Wells Fargo did not promote women
    in 1969-70 when I worked For them.

    Reply
    1. Chuck1 year ago

      Seriously? Women work twice as hard?

      Reply
  45. miK1 year ago

    Eileen, is the gap 23% or 2-5%? Comparing similar jobs and experiences, it seems 2-5% is more plausible. I mean, how can any company survive paying their workers 23% premium over others of same ability?

    Reply
    1. Eileen Patten1 year ago

      miK,

      The gap the White House usually discusses is 23%, not 2-5%, but what you have to keep in mind is that this is comparing all working women to all working men — and as we discuss in the second half of this post there are many factors contributing to this gap — for examaple, differences in time out of the workforce, hours worked and occupations all contribute to the gap, among other things. We do not have data on an individual workplace and position level that would allow us to look at exactly what women and men in the same position at the same companies earn.

      Eileen

      Reply
      1. Teh BuG1 year ago

        hey while were at it Eileen, lets compare Deaths in the workplace by gender with the gender pay gap, and see if we can correlate any information out of it.

        bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfoi/cfch0004.pdf

        Reply
        1. Teh BuG1 year ago

          Page Six is the one you want to look at.

          Reply
  46. TAG1 year ago

    Where are the direct results. Like, same job, same experience, same hours, same production, same ability, same skill, and same knowledge. If all things are equal then yes, the pay should be equal no matter what sex, race, or age. I believe when all things are considered, pay is equal.

    Reply
  47. Susan LIndquist1 year ago

    thanks Eileen! This is a very interesting and well researched study. But I’m concerned about two things.

    First, the “quick glance graphic” associated with the video broadcastsan immediate message: “Hey! things aren’t so bad!”. Women have narrowed the gap till it almost seems to disappear. Only when you look further do you find that the gap is much broader when looked at in depth. This is great research! But the small font “there is more to the story” is not going to lead many people into it. Worse, given how quickly everyone moves through the internet, grabbing and keeping first impressions, this article seems likely to have an over-all negative impact simply simply due to the choice of graphic. Please consider changing it.

    Second, what do you mean by “male counterparts”? do you mean that in a job-by-job comparison, as they move up the ladder women make less and less? Or is it a simple age-binned average, where the pay numbers suffer in later years primarily from women not reaching the same rung in the ladder? Both are a shame, but deciphering what drives the numbers is important in trying to find the best way to fix it.

    Reply
    1. Eileen Patten1 year ago

      Hi Sara,

      This analysis was meant to be more overarching and does not take into account job-by-job comparisons, so in this case “male counterparts” simply means men of the same age, regardless of work history or occupation. We account for some of the differences in full- vs. part-time work between men and women by using hourly earnings rather than weekly or annual earnings to make our comparisons. We do not have a way of calculating these figures based on what rung in the ladder men and women have reached in their jobs.

      The BLS has a table that includes some occupation-level analysis by gender among full-time workers that you might be interested in: bls.gov/cps/cpsaat39.pdf. However, this table is based on weekly earnings so it may be reflecting a difference in hours worked between men and women. For example, an analysis of American Time Use data by the BLS found that among full-time workers, men worked an average of 8.5 hours on days that they worked compared with 7.9 hours for women (bls.gov/news.release/atus.nr0.htm).

      Eileen

      Reply
      1. a5 months ago

        The glass ceiling is real and it is idiotic to say otherwise. Just ask ANY of the richest women in the world and they will tell you. It is narrowing because women are FIGHTING for it.

        Reply
  48. JayB1 year ago

    Eileen – assuming that a portion of the pay gap is due to discrimination, the implication is that men making pay decisions are the cause. Can you look at the data comparing pay differences for companies run by women or woman owned businesses? The gap should be measurably less between women and men for those companies.

    Reply
    1. Eileen Patten1 year ago

      JayB,

      We have not done any analysis on differences based on the gender of the leadership at a company or business — it is not a detail that we can get using the Census data that we typically use to run these analyses. If you know of any good analysis on this topic, I’d love to see it.

      Eileen

      Reply
  49. JD1 year ago

    For all the reasons given for why women make less than men, I never see anyone talk about biological ability except for in the context of physical strenght. Isn’t it completely possible that the male human brain is more logical than the female human brain? It is a scientific fact that in male human infants, testosterone fundamentally changes their brain to be different from the female baseline unchanged human brain.

    Also, the article says that younger women have closed the wage gap making 93% of men. Couldn’t this be due to men giving the younger and more attractive women a better position and pay? It may have nothing to do with ability, but instead be all about sexual dynamics. Those younger women shouldn’t count on that advantage always being there for them. If we factor out the young women, then the pay gap actually increases to around 60%. Meaning that women are only capable of being 60% as productive as a man.

    And that doesn’t include all the high paying bureaucratic government desk jobs that are mainly filled by women. At the end of the day, we may find that women are only half as productive as men.

    For some reason, we want to think that humans are the only creatures without gender differences that influence behavior and ability. Seems very unscientific to me.

    Reply
    1. a5 months ago

      No. It’s not. In fact, there are studies that suggest women in general may be more intelligent, better at multitasking, as well as better at handling stressful situations. That sounds like the perfect boss to me. I don’t even feel comfortable making claims like this about you, so please don’t try and make claims about me. As far as I’m concerned, we both have wonderful capability for knowledge and reason. Don’t even go there.

      Reply
  50. Dennis Maher1 year ago

    What is missing here is recognition of misogyny. The comments here express an amazing amount of dislike, dismissal, and hatred of women by men. Too many men talk trash about women, especially in fields where there are few women. In those fields women will not be welcome and will experience daily insults and efforts to keep them down or get them out. It is called discrimination.

    Reply
    1. Suzette Galope Garcia1 year ago

      I agree!

      Reply
    2. a5 months ago

      I agree as well! Well said. Sexism is prevalent and it doesn’t take a scientist to notice in daily life. I’m just glad programs are starting to pop up nationally to try and introduce women into science. So far, I know a great deal of friends currently attending college for science and math, so it may be working!

      Reply
  51. Jean Valjean1 year ago

    I’m sorry that the Pew Research Center is damaging their credibility by regurgitating this half-century old myth about unequal pay.

    Go to the Department of Labor and look at the way they compile wages. The only criteria they use to compile full time wages is whether the person is male or female. That’s just fine for feminists and politicians who want the female vote because this method shows that women make 23% less than men.

    But this is both inaccurate and unethical. Well, to be frank it’s a darned lie. Comparing the aggregate income of a group of women to a group of men may show that women make less income per year but it does not show that women are being discriminated against or that they are making less money in the same job and working the same hours with the same experience.

    In fact, when the 77% figure is controlled for type of job, number of hours worked each week, job experience, education, and job risk, the actual difference in wages drops to between 2 and 5%!

    And those who have compiled this data say there is no evidence that even the 5% is caused by discrimination. In fact, given the independent and autonomous choices of women that have led to them making less it’s entirely plausible that the remaining 5% is caused by other choices that have not been factored rather than some ethereal patriarchal discrimination.

    What ideologues and their cowardly lackies like Pew Research also fail to address is why would anyone ever hire a man if they could pay women 77cents on the dollar and get the exact same work? What company wouldn’t want to reduce their labor costs by 23%?

    Feminists and other people who parrot this wage gap myth never address this problem because the only possible answer is that either women are not being discriminated against OR women aren’t doing the same quality work as men.

    Whichever you choose, both invalidate the wage gap myth.

    Reply
  52. Luke1 year ago

    My mother and I were discussing the differences as well… I nake a 60k salary a year with bonus potential upwards of 150k totalling anywhere between 60k and 210k… I am a supervisor in the oilfield. She makes a salary at 42k a year as an office manager in the oilfield. I work in the area of 100-140 hours a week, my mother 36. I have seen women in my field but few. I know the national average pay for my age is around 25k.

    Could it be that most women choose the lower paying jobs for the “french benefits”, being able to miss work for the kids. Im not saying all. But due to the law of averages if women on average makke 16 cents less than men, and say even 25 % have chosen to be moms not just mothers, women make more.

    I think for reasearch purposes of the propseed executive and managerial position, both the males and females whom have chosen lower paying jobs should all be left out, then the comparisons should be based on a say 50 hour work week. I have a feeling we would find that men and women are paid equallly.

    Economics says equis parrabellum or something like it. Means all the remain equal. For true comparisons measurement should be taken from exactly alike catagories where they is no side mathematics to make figures match or seem as they do.

    Reply
  53. Julian1 year ago

    One of the things not mentioned in the article is the difference in education, particularly with respect to those workers attending graduate school. With the average MBA class comprised of only 17% women, the pay gap is typically going to persist in fields where the degree is beneficial. A number of schools are reaching out to recruit more women, but are competing with life priorities of candidates at the 27-31 year typical age range of an MBA student.

    The other concern is maternity or paternity leave impact. Recently, I noted than an employee out for 4 months on maternity leave, saw her responsibilities reduced when she returned. The reason was that her temporary replacement took the opportunity to shine in her absence and clearly outperformed her, while she was out on maternity leave. If the work place is a meritocracy than shouldn’t the replacement get to keep the new responsibilities? From the perspective of the business, the improved performance is clearly welcomed. I think that whenever someone is away from their job long enough to require a temp, that they run the risk of this happening. If it makes any difference in this situation by the way the temp who stepped in and did a better job was another woman. However, the gender isn’t the important piece, its the question of whether or not positions and roles can and should be guaranteed when someone leaves for an extended period of time including maternity or paternity leave.

    Reply
    1. Eileen Patten1 year ago

      We have more on the differences in educational attainment among men and women in our longer piece from December (pewsocialtrends.org/2013/12/11/o…).

      In the overview and Chapter 1, you can see that among Millennials ages 25-32, more women than men have at least a bachelor’s degree (38% vs. 31%), and among Millennials ages 18-24, more women than men are enrolled in college (45% vs. 38%). Today women make up about half (49%) of the college-educated workforce, compared with 36% in 1980. As this new group of young women emerges into adulthood with higher educational attainment than their male counterparts and an almost closed pay gap — at 93% — it will be interesting to see how gender pay gap story plays out over their working lives.

      Also of interest from the survey chapters of that report is the attitudes and opinions of college-educated women. Women with a bachelor’s degree or higher are much more likely than women with less education to say men generally earn more than women for the same work (73% vs. 55%). They are also more likely than men with a college education (55%) to say this. And a larger share of college-educated women also see barriers for women in getting top executive jobs in business and government — 71% say this is easier for men, compared with 47% of less educated women and 50% of college-educated men. And looking just at the college-educated Millennial women alone, they largely agree — 72% of college-educated Millennial women say it is easier for men to get top executive jobs in business or government these days and 69% say men generally earn more than women for the same work.

      Reply
      1. Jean Valjean1 year ago

        So you are saying that college wage women are saying that they believe they are making less? Why wouldn’t they say that? The wage gap myth has been repeated a million times over the last 50 years. When anyone says it’s a lie they are called a misogynist and what interest would a woman have in refuting it if it means she can get something she didn’t earn or explain away her own failures and choices?

        Let’s be frank here. Nearly every problem women face is ALWAYS someone elses fault. Why is that? No matter how much control and opportunity a woman has, if things don’t work out she’s a victim. Have you or anyone else ever considered that this mindset is actually what reinforces the idea that women are not as good as men?

        Also, you are attempting to insinuate that all the college educated women should be making as much or more than men. That would be true if not for two very important things.

        1. The US has a glut of college educated people who work in coffee shops and bag groceries.
        2. Women overwhelmingly avoid STEM fields and choose sociology and psychology majors which rarely pay well whereas the males in their cohort choose STEM and then go into those occupations.

        Even men who never go to college will make more than many college educated women because of some very good reasons.
        1. They choose jobs that are more risky and therefore pay more.
        2. They choose jobs that have more hardship like travel or work outdoors.
        3. They work longer hours. On average men work more hours per week and are paid more overtime hours.
        4. Women demand it! Women are still hypergamist and 50 years of feminism has done nothing to change the fact that almost every woman wants to marry a man who makes more money than she does. This innate and widespread discrimination against men on the part of women is the reason why men work harder and make more money because they know women won’t want us if we don’t. It’s also one of the reasons women do most of the child care because men are more reluctant to give up the identity that women insisted we have as a prerequisite to them choosing us in the first place. That’s already an easy choice to make since almost always the husband is making more than the wife. His hard work affords her the opportunity to slow down and enjoy a balanced life.

        And feminism allows her to throw that back in his face years later when she wants to cash out of the marriage and claim she’s been oppressed and forced to give up her career.

        There is no wage gap. There is just women who complain about everything and blame men for it because that has always been the way women got things they didn’t actually want to earn themselves.

        Reply
        1. a5 months ago

          You’re trying to explain a vast majority of incidences with one reason “that the replacement was [a better worker]” than the pregnant woman. Grouping all cases into one reason is a vast oversimplification of a larger issue. Also, you have to wonder why all the fields that women tend to choose tend to be the lowest paying. I do not think this is a coincidence. If you are trying to say sexism does not exist, you should read the comments toward the bottom of the page. It says a lot about trashy, disgusting, outdated attitudes that still prevail in American culture, including music and politics.

          Reply
      2. thomas1 year ago

        It will be interesting indeed, especially when the value of a university or college degree is not the guarantor of a ‘richer’ life these days. As Ken Robinson said in a TED talk, we have academic inflation where you need to a Masters degree as a minimum to take on entry jobs.

        I feel sorry for these women who are supposedly academically superior to men because of their higher post-secondary education attainment. Soon women will realize they dropped a hundred and fifty grand on an education they could have obtained for $1.50 in late chahges at the public library!

        Reply
      3. Kevin11 months ago

        Just because they say it (easier for men to get to the top) does not mean it is true. 9 of the 10 lowest paying college degrees are predominately women graduates. This and life choices are the primary drivers of the so called pay difference. Like a previous comment said, if companies could lower their payroll 23% by replacing men with women then men would never get a job.

        Reply
  54. Joel1 year ago

    Who the heck taught these people how long months are?
    Case 1: “…work approximately 60 extra days, or about three months…”
    Case 2: “…it would take approximately 40 days, or until the end of February…”
    Case 3: “…had to work approximately 90 days, roughly into the beginning of May…”

    Actual numbers. 1: 3 months is about 90 days. 2: The end of February is 31+28=59. 3: The beginning of May would be 31+28+31+30=120 days.

    Reply
    1. Eileen Patten1 year ago

      For this analysis, we are calculating months it would take for women to close the gap using only the working days in that month. So January, for example, has 31 days, but 8 of those days are weekends and two more (NYE and MLK) are typical work holidays, so only 21 of the days in January counted towards the number of extra days women had to work into the new year to earn what men did in the previous year since they were likely only working those 21 days.

      Reply
      1. Jean Valjean1 year ago

        Eileen, even if that’s so then they should have chose a different analogy. When they decided to stretch the perception of time out to make it seem more serious they stopped being honest and ethical researchers and started being ideologues engaged in hyperbole and propaganda.

        Reply
    2. Jean Valjean1 year ago

      These are feminists friend. They make these numbers up.

      There is a reason why women avoid STEM.

      It’s because you can’t get the answer to complex mathematics by crying or blaming the patriarchy.

      Reply
      1. Lala7 months ago

        As a woman currently studying sciences in university, what once was a male dominated area of study has diversified with gender and race. Young women are feeling less disadvantaged at learning and overcoming the stereotype threat of poor performance in math/sciences. Maybe the current work force is more male domineering but that will unlikely be the case in years to come. So please, this is a tired argument, and becoming more and more inaccurate.

        Reply
    3. Edward1 year ago

      The math isn’t wrong its based of a 5 day work week… so if you work 6 its less days.

      Reply
  55. michael1 year ago

    I agree with Kathleen.

    I wonder what happens to the wage data when comparable number of actual work-months is factored in? That is, if you were to compare women with 240 working months in their history to men with the same number, what would the wage difference be?

    SSA has this data. I wonder if they have a way to aggregate it for researchers.

    Reply
  56. Kathleen1 year ago

    The point that a lot of people seem to be missing is that it is EQUAL pay for EQUAL work that women like myself are after. If two people of different genders have the same job, same work experience, work the same number of hours, and contribute the same amount, then why are women statistically paid less than men? It’s great that the gap is decreasing, but the fact of the matter is it shouldn’t exist at all.

    At the same time I believe men should have paternity leave when they have a child, should not be penalized if they need to take time off to care for their family, and should not be passed up for promotions, raises, ect. if they prioritize their family over their job. The name of the game is equality. Neither women, men, nor minorities should be discriminated against in the workplace. Period.

    Reply
    1. Shawna1 year ago

      O_O do you understand the problem at all?? Women are not paid less than men for equivalent work. A male security officer working ten hours makes the exact same wages that a female security officer does.

      The problem being addressed here is that on average women’s annual income is lower than the average man’s because a higher number of women choose fields that pay less.

      A woman working as a secretary is going to make less than an engineer who is making skyscrapers.
      There is a real problem if a secretary who gets coffee and writes up memos, makes the same annual salary as the highly educated engineer who has to design and supervise the building of a multimillion dollar building.

      This is called reality, stop making women out to be victims or we’ll never be equal.

      Reply
    2. mysterman12 months ago

      There really isn’t a wage gap. The statistic shows a wage gap because there are discrepancies that is not considered that men and women undertake.

      A woman who takes 9 months off due to pregnancy compared to a man whose been working those 9 months while she’s off and both do the same type of work. There will be a discrepancy here since she’s been off for 9 months and hasn’t been earning anything since, while the man has been working for the past 9 months. Would you say there’s a wage gap? Of course but not because she’s a woman, but due to the fact that she’s been off work for 9 months while the man has been working for the 9 month period.

      A surgeon is not a surgeon. Did the study considered that a general surgeon isn’t going to earn the same wage as a brain surgeon or a heart surgeon. The same with a corporate accountant to a general accountant. Did the study considered these discrepancy when comparing the same type of work?

      “…Neither women, men, nor minorities should be discriminated against in the workplace.” Kathleen
      The issue is that you believe it and a lot of people believe it. Eventually you’ll have someone in politics who will push for this fairness and in the end it’s not women that get’s discriminated but men.

      Reply
      1. a5 months ago

        That’s part of the problem. There is no offer of support for people with families. Dads are discouraged from being leaders in the workforce. Many places do not offer paid leave for pregnant women. That is a PROBLEM, not a solution. And yes, women around the country actually are getting paid less for working the same job and that is obvious. Feminism is so important because it studies how women AND men are affected by politics in the workplace. Our current work environment is not conducive to families and does not help support family togetherness.

        Reply
        1. Justin3 months ago

          If women are actually paid less then men because of their gender then they can only blame themselves. We have had laws since the 70s to protect women from that very situation. Stfu, quit complaining on the interwebs and get a lawyer. Feminists you do yourself and your cause a great disservice by spreading lies to get sympathy and always playing the helpless victim.

          Reply
  57. Anthony Barnes1 year ago

    One of many things that needs to happen is that men should be allowed as much time off as women after their mates have had a child. Another is that women should be encouraged to go into higher paying fields. Also, employees should be allowed to compare pay without facing retaliation by employers. That way they’ll be better able to detect pay discrepancies. Furthermore, the government could offer more childcare services to women so that caring for their children won’t impact their jobs and careers as much. Things like this will reduce whatever the gender pay gap may be. It’s not enough to say it’s their own fault women earn less. Let’s help them.

    Reply
    1. Ethan Sams3 months ago

      They ARE encouraged to go into higher paying fields. There are programs from tax dollars; a few years ago Mattel came out with a space camp astronaut barbie for that very reason. The reality is that Elementary Education is 476219 times easier than mechanical engineering, and most (keep in mind MOST, not ALL) of these girls in college don’t bother putting forth the effort required for an engineering degree because they’re just banking on marrying an engineer. I don’t blame them either, I’m an IT / MIS guy, but if I were a girl I’d go get a worthless psychology degree and marry money too. Why not? It’s socially acceptable, and don’t pretend it isn’t.

      Reply
    2. Kelly6 days ago

      Yes, absolutely. Men need to be given family time off like is done in parts of Europe. But what if in these high-powered, competitive positions the majority refuses to take it and instead decide to focus on on their career? Do we then admit that, hey, maybe we’ve hit a biological wall on this (Some 5-10% gap, not 23%) and the only way to even it out would be to pay women MORE for the same work / less experience? When does fairness become unfair?

      Reply
  58. JohnnyK1 year ago

    There has been equal pay in my work world since I entered it in 1972. First in the military and then in sales. I contend that it is the work field women chose that holds them back financially. When I sold furniture at the same time as my wife she outsold me every day. Consequently her pay was higher than mine. Professional positions will pay the same no matter the gender when all other factors are equal. Taking time off definately impacts earning potential.
    Once again the government wishes to inject “fairness” through legislation instead of looking at reality. The chart in the article is quite encouraging in that younger women (at 93%) have received the message – get into professions that pay more and succeed. Success is the key, excel at what you do and the income will follow. My 36 year old daughter is an example of this.
    This movement is nothing more than an attempt by the Democrats to inject another wedge issue into the 2014 mid-term elections, thereby countering some of the lost votes from the Obamacare debacle by garnishing a higher percentage of the female vote. This is why you see the 77% number coming out of the White House. They will skew the numbers any way they can every time.
    I am glad Ms. Patten shares the facts with the charts and text and not just echo the administration’s numbers. That is journalism and not propaganda.

    Reply
  59. Kevin1 year ago

    An excellent article! You can find even more statistics on the reasons behind gender-based pay differences at work-equity.org. Women work significantly fewer hours than men, especially during the years between 25-40.

    If there was an “Equal Work Day” in 2014, statistics show that it would fall on April 10!

    Reply
    1. Eileen Patten1 year ago

      I hadn’t thought about measuring the time into the new year based on the difference in hours worked — very interesting! Thanks for sharing that perspective.

      Reply
  60. Rich1 year ago

    Men and women do different jobs. For instance men do more dangerous jobs as they make up over 90% of workplace deaths and accidents. To take something like gross income and not examine the many variables that leads to an outcome is irresponsible

    Reply
    1. steve davis1 year ago

      This doesn’t explain why men and women are paid differently while doing the SAME JOB.

      Reply
      1. Jac1 year ago

        Maybe you missed the part about taking extended absences from their job for various reasons….this affects pay which is often increased by a small percentage each year…

        Reply
        1. Sarah1 year ago

          Lots of women don’t do this, and they *still* earn less. Many don’t get these small increments each year either!

          Reply
  61. Article Comment1 year ago

    This is an incorrect conclusion from the facts:

    “This week, Senate Democrats also plan to again bring forward the proposed “Paycheck Fairness Act,” a bill that aims to eliminate the pay gap between female and male employees. Both men and women see a need for moves such as this – 72% of women and 61% of men said “this country needs to continue making changes to give men and women equality in the workplace,” according to a Pew Research Center survey last fall.”

    The author has not shown that people approve of *this* particular method. People approve of equality in the workplace, but that doesn’t mean unequal treatment if women are more likely to take time off to raise children. How would a women without children feel if her counterpart who took 5 years out of the workforce to raise kids got compensated the same despite different experience levels?

    Reply
    1. Bill1 year ago

      Excellent point!

      Reply
    2. David Stout1 year ago

      “How would a women without children feel if her counterpart who took 5 years out of the workforce to raise kids got compensated the same despite different experience levels?” – I’m embarrassed to say that I’d never thought of it like that. I’d thought in terms of men staying versus women leaving for child rearing and returning to their careers. It’s a fair point that NOT leaving the workforce is a choice women make too – and should be able to reasonably be expected to be better compensated for making.

      Reply
      1. Ryan Freire5 months ago

        Its also concerning when you consider that a lack of increased reward for increased effort breeds a workforce that does the bare minimum to keep the job. If I’m doing the work of 2 of my coworkers and you make it clear that there’s no chance of a raise for being a rockstar at my job, I’m certainly not going to maintain that level of effort.

        Reply